Some Important Examinations/Investigations


 SOME IMPORTANT EXAMINATIONS/INVESTIGATIONS


Pregnancy articles:
22. Birth

          Different types of physical examinations (testes) of a pregnant are done during pregnancy, which is as follow-

Test of stomach-

        Through this test, we can find out about wounds, marks on the stomach, the size of the foetus, location of foetus, movement of foetus, location of the head, size of the uterus and its increment with time, etc. stomach test is done many times during pregnancy.  

Test of the heartbeats of foetus-

          The heartbeats of the child can be tested with the help of stethoscope or Fetal Doppler. Fetal Doppler is a type of small instrument running through electricity or cells (battery). After placing it on the mother’s stomach, the heartbeats of the baby can be heard. Inside the uterus, the heart of the baby beats about 120 to 160 per minute.    

Test of the vagina-

       After 37 weeks of conception, the vagina is tested through which, a doctor tries to find out following information-

  • By testing the vagina, information about foetal size and its location, a doctor gets.
  • This test also provides information about the shape and structure of hips bones.
  • This test gives the information about the shape and size of the uterus and the condition of pregnancy period with time passes.       
  • Any type of tumors, swelling or fleshy part, etc. inside the uterus is traced out with the help of this test.  
  • Through this test, we can also find out any type of diseases related to the vagina and uterus.

Note- The tests of vagina and uterus should not be done again and again.

Tests of hands and legs-

          The blood, breathing diseases, heart diseases, etc. of a pregnant can be tested through her hands and nails. Through the hands, it can be also observed that how women do her household works. The swelling of the hands and fingers indicates various types of diseases. Varicose veins and swelling can be also found in the legs. 

Blood tests of a pregnant-

          Hemoglobin is the red part of blood which carries oxygen to the body that is important for both the mother and baby. Its deficiency is called anemia. For which, a doctor gives medicines having iron. So, have a check on your blood.

          Hemoglobin is considered in gram or percentage. About 14.7 gram of it in the body is called 100 %. The female body must have 11 to 13 gram hemoglobin so that she could give birth to a healthy child. If its volume is less than 11 gram, physically weaked child takes birth and has less body weight.       

Test of blood group-

         Having knowledge of a pregnant blood group is also important so that blood could be provided at the time of delivery if needed. Addition to it, you should have a close check on your R.H. factor too. The blood has divided in to four groups- A, B, AB, O, which can be negative or positive. In case of negative, a woman has to take N.D.T. vaccine just after giving birth so that next child does not able to get any harm or miscarriage does not take place.  

Test of rubella (German measles) and viral diseases-

          You should have a close check on German measles by blood. Several diseases are occurred also by this disease. Addition to it, you should also have thorough check up of hepatitis.  

Venereal diseases research laboratories-

          Through this test, venereal disease is diagnosed. This disease can be communicated from one person to another by sexual intercourse like that of syphilis. This disease spreads from male to female or female to male. So, before conception, it is important to know that any of the male and female suffers from this disease or not. So, both should have proper check up of this disease. Due to this disease, the child does not able to grow properly. For this test, both should talk to their doctor.   

Test of alpha feto protein-

          This test is done in female blood. The ideal time for this test is 16 to 18 weeks. If any type of disturbance present in the child growth, it is find out through this test. The liver of the foetus produces this protein and is reached to the mother’s blood through ovule. If any fault found while testing first time, have thorough check up again after two weeks and must talk to her doctor.

HIV (AIDS) test-

          HIV test is done through blood. The viruses of HIV are found in those women who involve in sexual intercourse with more than one male partners or their husband involve in sexual intercourse with more than one female partners. It is communicated also by the use of infected injection and infected blood.

Urine test-

          Urine test is very important. Through this test, we try to know about protein, glucose or pus. If any disease related to urine has occurred, it should be treated immediately and do not allow sugar to increase. So, talk to your doctor for it. It is also important to remain careful while collecting urine sample, urine must be collected in a neat and clean utensil or small bottle. For sample, middle stream of urine should be collected for test so that right report could come in test.

Ultrasound-

          Ultrasound is the sound waves through which foetal bones and muscles can be seen. Before goring for ultrasound, you should drink water as much as you can so that your bladder remained filled with water fully. It helps in ultrasound to get right result. In this test, a type of greasy paste is applied on the lower section of stomach and the probe of machine is moved on it. With the help of these sound waves, we can see the shape and size of the foetus, his/her movement and other activities on screens, heartbeats of the foetus can be also heard. By observing through ultrasound, liquid appears as too dark and foetal structure appears as white. The thing which is as much solid as visible in white appearance. This test can be done many times during pregnancy and is not harmful for mother and child, but testing through X-rays is harmful for both mother and child.         

Important roles of ultrasound during pregnancy:-

  • The age of the foetus can be found out through ultrasound.
  • The information about foetal growth can be obtained.
  • The physical shape and size of the foetus can be observed by ultrasound.
  • We can get information about different faults of foetal body, body structure and other diseases through ultrasound.
  • Through ultrasound, we can get information about heartbeats of the foetus.     
  • Through it, the faults and other deficiencies of foetal kidneys and brain are diagnosed.
  • We also get information about twins with the help of ultrasound.
  • The position of the foetus inside the uterus can be diagnosed through it. 
  • It also gives information about the location of the ovule.
  • The quantity of amniotic fluid can be found out by it.
  • Information about liver and gall bladder diseases can be gotten through ultrasound.

Amniocentesis-

          The test of amniocentesis is not required for all the women. This test is done in 14th to 16th week of pregnancy. In this test, ultrasound of female stomach is taken out and then with its guidance, amniotic fluid is removed out from the uterus with the help of syringe. In the test of this fluid, fetal cells are studied through which the body structure, structure of foetal spines, brain diseases and other diseases of the foetus are diagnosed. In this test, the role of ultrasound is most important so that syringe could be injected at right place and the needle of syringe could not able to hurt ovule or foetus.           

          By this test, few harmful effects can take place in women. Sometimes, outer diseases can be entered inside the uterus through infected syringe. It needs lots of cleanliness. This test may be responsible for miscarriage too. Therefore, it is necessary to be careful on all the points before this test.           

Signs of amniocentesis:-

  • When a gynecology expert feels any type of deficiency in unborn child.
  • When early born baby has any physical deficiency.
  • When all the children of family are physically challenged.
  • When woman’s age is more than 35 years.

          If it is found through amniocentesis or A.F.P. that unborn child has any fault, it is better to do abortion. In the initial 3-4 months of pregnancy, if meals, small pox or syphilis is found in unborn child, abortion should be done. Select only such hospital for abortion where all the modern facilities are available.  

Test of cryonic villas-

  • It is done when a gynecology expert found any type of deficiency in unborn child.
  • If the children of family has any faults in their physical structure.
  • If a woman has the history of giving birth of physically challenged child. 
  • If hereditary deficiency is found in children.

Vaccines of tetanus-

         During pregnancy, injection of tetanus must be given to a pregnant. This injection protects both the mother and baby from tetanus. This injection is injected 2-3 times. Few gynecology experts give this injection in the third, sixth and ninth month of pregnancy while few of them give this injection in seventh and eighth month of pregnancy.

Sex of unborn child-

        When the ovum of female fertilizes with male sperm, the foetus develops. It consists of 23 chromosomes of female ovum and 23 chromosomes of male sperm. In this way, 46 chromosomes make 23 pairs of chromosomes. Female sex chromosomes are known as ‘X’ and male sex chromosomes are of two types i.e. ‘X’ and ‘Y’. When ‘X’ chromosomes of female combines with ‘X’ chromosomes of male, girl takes birth, which is called ‘X’, ‘X’. When male ‘Y’ fertilizes with female ‘X’, boy takes birth, which is known as ‘X’, ‘Y’.   

          Few doctors believe that sex of the foetus is decided by pregnant diet. About 80 % people can get success in this work by taking diet. If women take enough starch, milk, milk products, less salt and calcium tablets in their diet, girl takes birth while if they take extra salt, meat, fruits, less quantity of milk and milk products, a tablet of potassium in their diet, boy takes birth.

          Few doctors believe that a person having desires for involving in sexual intercourse with more than one female partner, has high possibility of boy birth.

        According to few people, if a woman washes her vagina with soda-bi-carbonate before involving in sexual intercourse with male partner, boy takes birth. For this purpose, add a spoon of soda-bi-carbonate in about half liter of lukewarm water and should try to wash the vaginal internally. After this activity, by taking part in sexual intercourse, boy takes birth. While, by washing the vagina with the solution of a spoon of white vinegar and half spoon of lukewarm water after mixing together, girl takes birth.

          Few people believe that sex determination depends on the time of sexual intercourse. In this theory, it is said that if male and female do sex within 48 hours of forming ovum, child will be boy. If they involve in sexual intercourse after 48 hours, child will be girl.

          To verify this fact, do sex 3 times within 48 hours after forming ovum and wait for conception for the whole month. If conception does not take place, repeat this activity in the next month too. It helps to get desired child. Woman, if wants, can see the formation of ovum properly through ultrasound. It can be also verified through the temperature of female body that ovum is forming or not, because the body temperature of female is less before eggs (ovum) formation and after forming eggs, her body temperature is raised up to 1 degree.   

Blood circulation per minute:-

Part (place)

Normal woman

Pregnant woman

In the uterus

50 M.L.

750 M.L.

In the lungs

6000 M.L.

850 M.L.

In the anus

800 M.L.

1200 M.L.

In the skin

200 to 250 M.L.

500 M.L.