Shock


SHOCK


Introduction-

        When one gets serious deep wounds on his/her body by an accident, one more problem is also occurred along with it which is like a challenge for the person who is doing primary treatment. It is the condition of shock. It is very difficult to solve this problem. Therefore, you should always be ready to face it.

        Normally ‘Shock’ is considered as electric shock. There is no any doubt that the condition of shock is occurred by coming in the contact of naked electric wire, but this type of condition also occurs due to such accidents which have no any relation with the electricity. In fact, the condition of coming depression in all the body functions is called ‘Shock.’. It is related to blood circulatory system of our body, but not only to heart.

        For understanding the condition of shock and for giving primary treatment in it, it is very important for you to understand first the blood circulatory system of the body. There are three chief organs of the blood circulatory system-

  • Our heart acts like a pump to provide blood to every organs of the body.
  • The system of capillaries, arteries and veins through which blood reaches to the different organs of the body.
  • The blood.

The chief function of the blood circulatory system is to provided oxygen and nutritive substances to the different tissues and to carry back the waste products of them. Exchange of nutritive and waste substances is done in the capillaries. The capillaries are the smallest blood vessels. During normal circulation of blood, the blood is circulated through arteries along with pressure. This pressure is just known as blood pressure.

In other words, the term ‘blood pressure’ is the pressure applied on the walls of blood vessels by the blood. In fact, the blood pressure depends on various factors. Few chief factors are as follow-

  • The pumping ability of heart.
  • The shape of vascular bed.
  • The width of arteries.
  • Muscular tone and the flexibility of the walls of blood vessels.
  • The amount of blood for filling blood circulation system.

If any of them does not do its work properly, its results may be serious. If the heart does not do its function well, heart attack may occur. Over bleeding may become responsible for lack of blood in the blood circulatory system. It may be dangerous for sufferer’s life. When faults are occurred in the shape and functions of the blood vessels, condition like shock is occurred. This is the reason why sometimes shock is also called peripheral circulatory failure.

        In the condition of shock, the different tissues of the body do not able to get blood in sufficient amount. In beginning, the blood vessels of the unnecessary (common) organs of our body are contracted by their selves and in other hand, the blood vessels of important organs are expanded. However, if improvement is not found in the patient’s condition, the blood starts congesting in those organs where blood vessels had been contracted. Along with it, the plasma of the blood starts leaking from blood vessels after becoming their walls weak due to lack of oxygen resulting the amount of circulating blood starts decreasing and it starts becoming as more concentrated, as more acidic and many harmful substances start producing in it. As well as heart beats start becoming slower due to working hard, getting insufficient amount of blood and due to insufficient supply of nutritive substance to the heart muscles. Its result is very dangerous. Disturbance comes in blood circulation and the sufferer starts becoming unconscious.

The condition of the shock patient goes on become worse progressively in the absence of treatment. sometimes, the patient is not able to recover his/her health again completely even after getting proper treatment and sometimes his/her organs are become useless and at last, he/she may die too.

Cause- shock may occur by various reasons, it is become too serious there are several reasons of shock, but it becomes more serious in case of infection. The deficiency of fluids, plasma or blood generates the condition of shock within only few minutes. It does not matter that this deficiency occurs by either internal hemorrhage or external hemorrhage. Well, the condition of shock often occurs by bleeding in extra volume or getting serious hurt in accidents. But, sometime it may occur also due to minor reasons.

        The condition of shock may often occur by burning of any body part badly, because the fluid of the burnt parts and the soft tissues beneath it are come in additional quantity.

        Sometimes, the patient comes in the condition of shock also due to unbearable pain in the kidney, any dangerous difficulty in the stomach or stone, etc. normally; the intolerable pain of any body part aggravates the condition of shock. This type of condition may also occur due to taking insulin in over quantity or entering of few toxins or outer protein, etc. inside the body.      

External symptoms- in the beginning, the shock patient feels weakness and unconsciousness start occurring. He/she also complaints of vertigo, he/she may vomit too, starts feeling thirst and craves for water again and again. It is an important symptom of shock. In beginning, the patient’s skin appears as yellow but later, it is turned into ash appearance, becomes cold by touching and sticky due to sweating.

        The patient suffering from shock has complaints of restlessness, nervousness and trembling. It is not treated for long time or if it persists longer, the thinking ability of the brain start decreasing gradually which goes on becoming faster along with time and at last, the patient becomes unconscious completely. His/her eyes balls become wider. even in this condition, the heart tries hard to supply sufficient amount of blood to the brain resulting other parts of the body do not able to get sufficient amount of blood.

        By failure try (efforts) of the heart to improve blood circulation, its rate is become very fast. The pulse rate also increased from 70-80 per minute to 160 per minute. But, it becomes too less due to deficiency of blood. This is the reason why sometime pulse is found absent on wrist.

Due to decreasing the volume of blood, the sound of heartbeats also starts becoming low. Blood pressure is fallen to 65 mm. if the blood pressure of the patient persists at 65 mm or less than it, the brain and other organs do not get sufficient amount of oxygen and the symptoms caused by it start occurring. The brain gets permanent harms, which is not recovered later even after getting quality treatment. Sometimes the patient is died too.

          The patient’s body also tries hard by itself to prevent this condition. The patient starts trying to inhale maximum amount of oxygen resulting his/her breathe start becoming deep and fast. The mouth is opened and he/she starts panting. The speed of his/her panting is increased too in case of becoming the condition too worse and it seems that he/she wants to take in maximum air at any cost. This situation is considered as very serious and the sign of coming death.  

        Just the same symptoms appear in the condition of shock due to over bleeding. The blood vessels are contracted for facing deficiency of blood occurring due to over bleeding resulting the skin, lips, nails and eyelids are fallen blue, but there is no any changes found in the pulse rate and blood pressure. In this condition, the supply of blood to the brain is also remained same and it goes on working its works in a normal way and the patient remains conscious. But, if bleeding is not prevented (stopped), patient’s condition starts becoming worse, pulse rate is increased and blood pressure starts falling down. He/she starts panting in the way of trying to get maximum amount of oxygen. This is the reason why he/she is in excited form instead of inactive.

        Quantity of blood which is responsible for the condition of shock depends on the patient. But, normally this condition occurs after bleeding in the volume of 1-2 liter. It is also not necessary that bleeding must be external. The condition of shock may also occur due to internal bleeding caused by internal hurt or injury. In other hand the injured person may die due to deficiency of blood without showing any sign from outside.        

Treatment- You should first check that shock is just responsible for worse condition of the patient or not. Sometimes, the condition of the patient become like this also by heart failure.

        You may easily find out the reality. It is very important because the primary treatment given in both the conditions is quite different to each other. If the primary treatment of heart failure is given in the case of shock or giving the primary treatment of shock in the case of heart failure, there is no doubt that it may make the patient’s condition too worse instead of recovering.

        Heart failure occurs due to defects in the heart, but not by peripheral blood circulation. Congestion is the clearest external symptom of heart failure. In this case, obstruction starts occurring in blood circulation, resulting blood starts congesting in the veins and cells.  

        In case of heart failure, the skin is turned into blue instead of becoming yellow; the veins are raised up and fluid starts gathering abnormally in internal cells beneath skin. In this condition, the affected skin is suppressed down by pressing it with finger.

        In the case of heart failure, there is a possibility for the pulse to become irregular. Fluid starts gathering in breathing pipe due to congestion in the lungs additionally resulting whizzing (whirring) sound produces when the patient breathes.

        The main motto of giving primary treatment is to try preventing the condition of shock in being occurred and provide treatment immediately when it occurred.

        If the condition of any injured person start becoming worse due to shock, first of all shock should be treated, then the wounds. But, if bleeding is too violent (in fast motion), you should first try to stop it. You should also be careful about stopping heart beats and difficult breath while treatment, it is very important.          

        In case of cold climate and in the possibility of exposing cold to the patient, you should try to give warmth to the patient after making him/her lie down. Put off all his/her wet clothes. Cover the patient’s body with blankets as well as unfold another blanket also under him/her. But, be careful while doing so and up the patient gently without giving any type of jerk, etc. for giving extra warmth to his/her body, papers can be spread between blankets.

        While providing warmth to the patient, it is very important to be careful that never use the bag of hot water for giving warmth even fire warmth should also not be given to him/her, because his/her body organs may burn easily due to abnormal condition of the blood circulation. Here, one more thing is also important that over warmth and massaging of any organ of his/her body may make the patient’s condition worse too much.

        If the patient can swallow during shock, liquids like- little water, tea, coffee or coconut (raw) water, etc. can be given to him/her for drinking. But, never give alcohol as well as never force him/her to drink anything. Tea or coffee provides warmth to his/her body as well as the requirement of liquid substances is also being fulfilled in his/her body. Do not give anything to the patient for drinking or eating in case of getting hurt on his/her chest or stomach, because operation (surgery) may be needed in such case.

        If you have doubt about disturbing the supply of blood to the patient’s brain due to additional bleeding from his/her body, do not allow him/her to sit or stand. Make him/her as lie down and raise his/her legs little up. For this purpose, you may also make the bed or stretcher as little high.        

        Wounds’ pain of the patient aggravates his/her restless too much resulting the condition of shock may also become too worse. So, you should also do arrangement to lessen his/her pain. You should need to dress his/her wounds (apply ointment and tie a bandage). If any of his/her bone has been fractured, do its treatment too. Pain killer may be given to the patient.

        After doing such treatment, the patient should be carried to the nearest hospital or a doctor immediately, because serious condition starts occurring due to deficiency of blood in his/her body. It may be possible to give blood for further treatment and you can not do this job by yourself, only an expert doctor may do it. It may be possible to give also glucose or oxygen to the patient.

Electric shock- Shock is occurred also by getting electric shock. You know that one gets electric shock when he/she comes in contact of naked electric wire knowingly or unknowingly. Many times the earth wire is not arranged properly in the electrical appliances of family use like- press, heater, etc. and when one comes in contact of such things, he/she gets electric shock.

        We get electric shock only when electric current is passed through our body to the earth. Its effects may be more dangerous in moist or wet condition. Like this, even little current passing through chest may be more harmful than passing through feet.

        Body parts may burn due to electric shock. The burnt area may be minor (normal) or major (serious) depending on the violence of shock. The heart may become weak seriously by the effects of violent electric shock. Due to becoming the muscles of respiratory organs weak, respiration may stop suddenly, but the heart may keep on its functions even after stopping breath.

        In case of getting electric shock, first of all the injured person should be remove away from the place where he/she has gotten electric shock or is getting electric shock. if he/she is in the contact of that wire or appliance, switch off that appliances or cut the main switch or the injured person should be removed away separate from that electric wire or appliance with the help of anything which is bad conductor of electricity like- wood, rubber, etc. before doing it, you must also wear rubber shoes or doing it as standing on a dry piece of any wood otherwise you may also get electric shock.

        In the condition of shock occurring after getting electric shock, if the inured person is not breathing properly or his/her heartbeats have been stopped, first of all start giving artificial breath and try to start his/her heartbeats again as well as massage his/her chest. These activities should be kept continue until becoming his/her heartbeats and breathes normal again or he/she gets medical help.