Respiratory system


        All the animals found in this world have need to take breathe, because no any animal can be live without it. Respiratory process (respiration) is very necessary for different types of tissues and organs present in the body and also for physical activities. Respiration is a process in which animals breathe in (inhale) outer air (oxygen) and breathe our (exhale) internal air (carbon-di-oxide). The whole system of inhaling and exhaling is called respiratory system. 

There are three types of breathing process (respiratory process)-

  1. Inspiration.
  2. Expiration.
  3. A little intervallic process in between both these process.

        In inspiration, human inhale outer air and in expiration, he exhale internal air and the interval between both these activities is known as intervallic activity.

        Various types of organs are found in human body and all kinds of other animals for respiration and supplying oxygen to different tissues.

There are many respiratory organs which get a role in breathing are as given bellow:

Respiratory organs-

  1. Nose.
  2. Pharynx.
  3. Larynx.
  4. Trachea.
  5. Bronchus.
  6. Bronchioles.
  7. Alveoli.
  8. Lungs.

        In the upper part of larynx, a small layer locates, which is called upjinha. When human eats food, this upjinha covers the larynx resulting food particles do not able to enter in the larynx. In case, food particles are entered inside the larynx, violent cough occurs suddenly that removes out food particles. The nose remains divided in to two nostrils by nasal septum and covered with a soft membrane. This soft membrane is called mucus membrane. Small soft hairs present on this mucus membrane, which acts like a filter and prevent dust, soil, etc. to enter inside the nose as well as warms the air about to enter inside it. This mucus membrane is gotten swelling when any type of disease occurs in the body. During respiration, when air enters inside the nose, it is forwarded in to bronchus through larynx. Inside the bronchus, a semi circular white flexible matter is found as spread position on the opening of upasthi. If these circular matters are not present, bronchus will be broken in to pieces. Thus, it is known as the protector (guard) of the bronchus. The bronchus remains covered with a mucus membrane and few glands are found in this mucus membrane that secretes a type of sticky fluid to keep the bronchus as soft and moist, known as mucus. The bronchus is divided in to two parts, known as bronchioles. These bronchioles are situated just above urosthi at a distance of 5 cm and grow towards left and right and divided into many small alveolar ducts. In the last, it enters inside the air sacs (bags) present in the lungs and known as alveoli. With the help of only these alveoli, oxygen taken by breathing is able to reach or mix with blood and carbon dioxide come back inside the bronchus from the blood.

        In an adult, about 300 to 400 lakhs of alveoli are found inside the lungs and occupy about 100 sq.m areas. All the alveoli are goes on puffing up and bursting.  

        The lungs are funnel in shape and the upper part of it is comparably narrow. There are 3 lobes are found in its right part and 2 lobes in the left ones. It is situated on a muscular dome shaped plate, known as madhyachad (diaphragm). Madhyachad (diaphragm) separates the chest and outer abdominal layer. The lungs remain covered with a transparent (thin) membrane, known as pleura. The pleura are bended backward by itself in layers on the base of the lungs.   

Structure of respiratory system-

        When one breathes, the diaphragm is contracted and dome shaped plate is become flat and allow the chest to expand up and down. Along with, the ribs are also move up and down resulting internal area is spread completely. In this way, the lungs get chance for flexibility and expansion. As a result of it, the alveoli are filled with air. After that, little interval comes and after this interval, the diaphragm is expanded again and then comes in its original shape as well as the ribs are also comes in their earlier position resulting the lungs are contracted and release out internal air.     

        An old person inhales and exhales about 15 to 18 times in one minute. This breathing rate varies in different conditions like- working hard, exercising and temperature. As much air is inhaled by a person as not exhaled out even he exhales out with force. Minimum air is left inside the lungs surely and the air left are known as residual air. In this way, respiratory process takes place (completes).   

Figure of respiratory system-

        The blood carry oxygen to all the body cells as well as only it plays important role in exchange of air inside the alveoli. The air inhaled has nitrogen (79%), carbon dioxide (0.03), oxygen (21%) and other gases while the air exhaled has carbon dioxide (4%), oxygen (16%), nitrogen (80%) and other gases. The whole process of respiration is controlled and regularized by respiratory center present in the brain through medulla oblongata, nervous fibers and respiratory muscles.  

        The respiratory process goes on changing in different conditions like- the breathing (respiratory) rate is become fast while running and become slow during illness. Doctors find out easily after check out the breathing rate of a person that from which disease he is suffering. For illustration- a T.B. patient feels rustling sensation while breathing and takes long time in it. When whistling sound comes out while breathing, a clear interval found between inspiration and expiration, voices like uh, ho, hau, etc. come, this stage of breathing is called bronchiole breathe. This type of condition is found in few lungs diseases. Few common symptoms like sneezing and coughing are related to respiratory systems. When any type of dust or food particles are entered in the larynx and mucus membrane of bronchus, this type of condition is occurred. It is happen so that food or dust particles entered came out and the respiratory systems go on working well.