The heart has the characteristic of rhythmic contraction. The rhythmic contraction originates from S.A node, a special place of myocardium. This special place is called pace maker. From this point, this stimulus excites and stimulates other portions of the heart for contraction through the special fibers and bundle of His. Such heart beat is in all the muscles of heart chambers whereby there is alternative contraction and expansion in the heart. When this stimulation reaches into the left ventricle of the heart, the blood gets pumped into the aorta because of the contraction in the left ventricle. The pressure gets increased by it and reaches further in the arteries like waves. A kind of wave originates because of contracting and expanding of the arteries which is called pulse. It runs on the fore in all the big arteries. The pulse can be felt easily by touching where any artery is near the skin. Generally, one can feel pulse by touching the radial artery on the frontal portion of the wrist by holding it by the three middle fingers. By the way, it can also be felt on those places where the artery is near the skin and above the bone.
In normal condition, the pulse rate is synchronous to the heart rate as the heart rate is 72 per minute, the pulse rate will also be 72 per minute. The pulse rate depends on the age, gender, excitement, mental condition, labor and many other factors. It is high in children and it decreases as the age grows. The average pulse rate is 70 to 90 per minute in adult people whereas it is 80 to 140 per minute in a child. When the pulse rate becomes high than 100 per minute, this condition is called tachycardia and when it is below than 60 per minute, this condition is called bradycardia.
Generally, the pulse rate becomes slow while sleeping and it becomes high at the time of eating and working. In the case of fever, ten beats of pulse rate get increased from the one degree temperature. The pulse rate becomes very high after excessive bleeding and often it remains high in the case of severe anaemia. Sometimes, there is disturbance in the regularity of the heart’s contractions and the condition of arrhythmia originates.