Pivot joints


Pivot joints


      Only axis or rotation is possible in such kinds of joints. Atlas vertebra of neck, middle joints of odontoid process of axis vertebra and radio ulnar joint are such kind of joints.

Condyloid joints:

        Such kinds of joints are like the joints of hinge. They can move only in lateral and anterior lateral directions. Flexion, extension, abdusction, adduction and some circumduction are possible in such kinds of joints but rotation is not possible. Except the thumb of the hand, Metacarpophallangeal joints of knuckles and metatosophallengeal joints are such kind of joints 

Gliding joints:       

        Surface of bones are flat in such kinds of joints whereby one bone slips on another bone. Middle joints of articular cilia of vertebra, acromyoclavikular joint and middle joints of skull and tarsal bones are such kinds of joints.

Saddle joints:

        In such kinds of joints, the convex end of one bone attaches in the end of concave in another bone. There is full capacity to move the organ in such kinds of joints. Such joint is the middle joint of the first metacarpal and trapezium bone. There are abduction, adduction, opposition and reposition in such kinds of joints.

Ball & Socket joints:

        In such kinds of joints, the round end of one bone remains fit in the socket in the shape of cup of another bone. These joints move freely more than other joints. Joints of shoulders and hips are such kinds of joints. Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation (out and inside) and circumduction are possible in such kinds of joints. Supination and pronation movements are not possible in it.   

Types of movements at joints:

Flexion:

        By this movement, the process in which the organ is brought towards the middle line of the body by folding it comes. Folding and bending of the organ comes in this movement as folding elbow or knee.

Extension:

        In this movement, stretching organ far from the middle line of the body is possible. Straightening organs by making them straight comes in this kind of movement as stretching arms.  

Abduction:

        Carrying one body organ far from the middle line of the body is called abduction.

Adduction:

        A process in which any body organ is brought near the middle line of the body is called adduction.

Circumduction:

        In this kind of movement, any body organ is moved in a circular way on some distance from the body. Example-there is such kind of movement when ball is bowled in cricket.

Rotation:

        Moving on the axis is called rotation. Moving one bone around the cilias of any bone or moving it inside another bone has such kind of movement as movement in the middle joints of atlas vertebra and axisa vertebra.

Inversion:

        In it, the process of moving inwardly comes as moving sole of the foot inwardly. 

Eversion:

        In it, there is a process of moving organs outwardly as moving sole of the foot outwardly.

Supination:

        It is a circular movement of forearm in which radius become parallel to ulna by moving or moving palm upwardly or lifting middle edge of the foot upwardly or lying straightly on the back. 

Pronation:

      It is a circular movement of forearm in which radius become crooked above the ulna or moving palm downwardly or backwardly or the process in which one lies by bringing the face downwards.   

Opposition:

      It is an angular movement in which finger smaller than thumb is touched. Such kind of movement is only on the carpometacarpal joint of the hand’s thumb. 

Reposition:

     It is such movement in which the thumb reaches in its anatomical stage. This movement is just opposite to the opposition.

Protraction:

     Movement on the front side as marching mandible forwardly

Retraction:

     The process of pulling backwardly as pulling mandible backwardly

Depression:

     Dislocation of any body organ downwardly or inwardly

Elevation:

  • Raising any body organ
  • Articulations of the human body
  • Articulations of the human body
  • joints associated with skull
  • Joints associated with skull

Temporomandibular joint or TM joint:

    Only this joint of the face is moveable. It is called synovial joint. There are hinge and gliding structures in it.

Atlantooccipital joint:

    It is a joint between atlas and occipital bone. There is a hinge joint in it in which the head is moved in agreement.

Joints of the vertebral column:

    There are joints in all the vertebrae from second cervical vertebra to sacrum. There is a cartilaginous joint in the middle of bodies of vertebra and there is a synovial joint in the middle of vertebral archage.

Joints associated with the ribs and sternum:

Costovertebral jointa:

    These are the synovial joints situated on the cilias of transverse of thoracic vertebrae and articular facets and tubercles situated on the endings of ribs. There are gliding and rotation movement in it. 

Sternocostal joints:

    The endings of costal cartilage of ribs get attached with the pits situated in the lateral of sternum whereby sternocostal joints origante. The joint of first rib is synarthroses (immoveable). There is a gliding movement in the joints from second to seventh ribs. These are the synovial joint.

Interchondral joints:

    Joints of costal cartilage from fifth to ninth ribs are called interchondral joints. There is a gliding joint in it which makes the adujustment while breathing. These are synovian joint.

Manubriosternal joint:

    It is a joint between the manubrium of sternum and its body. This joint is cartilaginous joint. In it, only a little movement is possible in it. 

Xiphisternal joint:

    It is a cartilaginous joint between the gified cilias of sternum and its body. There is a little movement in it. 

Joints of the pectoral girdle:

Sternoclavicular joint:

    This joint comes into existence because of meeting sternal ending of clavicle, menubrium of sternum and costal cartilage of first rib. It is a gliding joint in which there are alevation, depression, protraction and retraction movements.  

Acromioclavicular joint:

    It is the joint between the endings of acromial of clavicle and medial surface of acomian of scapula. It is a synovial joint and there are gliding movements in it. By it, humrus bone gets support in free movement on the joint of shoulder. 

Coracoclavicular joint:

    It is a fibrous joint between the clavicle and corcoid cilias of scapula. It is a syndesmoses joint which checks clavicle from getting apart from the scapula.

Joints of arm and forearm:

Shoulder joint or glenohumeral joint:

    It is a ball and socket type joint and it provides much free movement comparison to all the joints of the body. It comes into existence when round ending of humrus gets fit in the glenoid cavity of scapula. Articular surfaces are covered by fibrous cartilages and the fibrocartilaginous rim of glenoid cavity which is called glenoid labrum become much deep whereby extra firmness is got without limiting the movement and it reduces the fear of dislocation. Both bones scapula and humrus are attached altogether by a flexible capsule of ligaments whereby there can be free movement on this joint normally and in addition to, powerful muscles help in sustaining the position of bones. Long tendon of biceps muscle does the work of interacapsular ligament. This tendon goes into the cavity of joint from the bicepital groove in the middle of tuberocities of humrus and because it emerges from the scapula just above the glenoid cavity so it sustains the surfaces which make the joint in appropriate condition.

Elbow joint:

    It is a hinge joint which originates because of meeting trochlea and capitulum, trochlear notch situated on the lower ending of humrus bone and head of radius. Trochlea of humrus remains fit in the trochlear notch of ulna and the capitulum gets attached with the apex of capitulum radius. There are anterior, posterior, medial and lateral ligaments which supply power from the joint capsule.  There are flexion and extension movement from this joint.    

Radioulnar joint:

    There are two diarthroses joints- proximal and distal between the bones radius and ulna. The proximal radioulnar joint originates between the top of radius and radial notch of ulna whereas the distal radioulnar joint originates between the top of ulna and ulnar notch of radius. Both joints are called pivot.

     There is a powerful anular ligament out of the joint capsule which surrounds the peak of the radius from all sides and keeps it into the contact of radial notch of ulna.

     There are pronation and supination movements in these both joints. The palm is downwards in the pronation movement whereas the palm is upwards in the supination. 

Radiocarpal joint:

       It is a joint between the lower or distal ending and scafied, lunate, triquital corpal bones of proximal row. 

     Medial and lateral ligaments and anterior and posterior radiocarpal are found out of joint capsule. There are abduction, flexion, Extension, hyperextension and circumduction on this joint.  

Joints of the hand:

     This is the joint of the middle of carpal bones of proximal and distal rows. Since these bones are adherent very much to each other. So, there are a little flexion and extension movement in them. 

Carpometacarpal joint:

     It is the middle joint between the trapezium and the proximal ending of first metacarpal bone. It is a saddle type joint.

Metacarpophalangeal joint: knuckle

     Condyloid types of joints come into existence between the endings of metacarpal bone and the bases of proximal phalanges. There are flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction and cirumduction movements on these joints.

Interophalangeal joints:

     Hinge types of joints come into existence between tops of phalanges and concave bases of closed by phalanges. There are flexion and extension movements on these joints. 

Joints of the pelvis:

Sacroiliac joint:

     There are two joints anterior and posterior between the sacrum and ileum bones. The anterior joint is synovial joint in which there are a little gliding and rotation movements which provide flexibility to the joint and the posterior joint is fibrous joint in which there is a little movement and provides safety to the joint.

Symphysis pubis:

     There is a fibrocartilaginous joint in the middle of bodies of pubic bones which are immoveable but there is a little movement in it at the time of delivery.

Hip joint:

     It is a ball and socket type of joint which comes into existence when the round head of femur gets fit into the deep acetabulum of innominate bone (hipbone) in the size of cup. Surfaces which make joints are covered by articular cartilage. Around the edges of acetabulum, the depth of acetabulum cavity becomes very much by the acetabular labrum which is a fibrous cartilage whereby the top of the femur gets fitted properly.

     Capsular ligament covers the most of portion of the cervix of femur. The ligament of the top of femur starts from a small and rough fovea situated on the top and goes to the acetabulum. The synovial membrane covers the both sides of acetabular labrum and makes an empty cover around the top ligament of femur. There are many ligaments for surrounding and providing strength to joint capsule and the ligament named iliofemoral is the most powerful which remains in front of the bones and the extension of hip does not permit it to remain much far from the middle line. Movements named flexion, extension, abduction, medial and lateral rotation movement and circumduction are possible on the joint of hip.

Knee or tibio- femoral joint:

     The joint of knee is the biggest and most complex joint of the body. It is a synovial joint of hinge structure.

     In reality, the joint of knee is made of three synovial joints. One joint is in the medial condyles of femur and tibia and the second joint is in the middle of these bones whereas the third joint is between the patella and femur. The anterior portion is made of tendons of quadriceps femoris muscles which give support to the patella too. Articular ligaments get strength from the external ligaments, tibial or medial collateral ligament and fibular or lateral coletral ligament which are extended to the laterals of femur. In the middle of joint, there are two anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments which cross to each other at the middle portion like strong rope which are extended from intercondiler of femur to the intercondiler to the intercondiler eminence and are covered by the synovial membrane. These help in keeping the joint fix and control the movement of knee.

     There are two semilunar discs of white fibrous cartilage on the top of articular condiles of tibia inside the joint which are called menisci. These are in wedge-shaped and their external edge is much thick. These help in getting fixed to the joint by checking the lateral displacement of bones and these make articular surfaces of tibia much deep for getting fit of the condiler surfaces of femur on the articular surfaces of tibia. 

     There are many bursa in the joints which do the work of discs. These are in this way-suprapatellar burse just above the patella- it is situated between the quadriceps femoris muscle and femur. Second is preptallar bursa- it is situated between the skin and patella. Third is infrapattelar burse-it is situated between the skin and tibial tuberosicty. By these, there is a little abduction between the bone and ligament or tendon and patella.   

     Flexion, extension and a little rotation movement is possible.

Ankle or talocrural joint:

     It is a hinge type of joint of the middle side of the lower distal ending of tibia and medial malleous and distal ending or lateral malleolus and upper surface of talus. The joint gets strength from the deltoid and anterior, posterior, medial and lateral ligaments.  There is movement of flexion or extension but generally flexion is called dorciflexion (raising foot upwardly) and extension is called planter flexion (raising heel upwardly).

Joints of the foot:

     Tarsal bones are jointed altogether by the dorsal, planter and interoasis ligaments. There are gliding joints in the middle. In tarsal bones, there is a posterior joint or subtalar joint between the talus and calcaneus bones. There is an anterior joint or Talocalcaneonavicular joint made by a mixed way in the middle of talus and calcaneus and talus and nevicular bones. There is a transverse tarsal joint made by a mixed way in the middle of the calcaneus and cubide and talus and nevicular bones. All these three joints make joint in the form of a unit. The axis of their rotation makes a line which is called subtalar axis. There are inversion and eversion movements in the joints viz the foot moves outwardly or inwardly.

Tarsometatarsal joints:

     These are the middle joints of four anterior torsal bones and the bases of meta-tarsal bones. These are the gliding joints in which there is a light movement.

Metatarsophalangeal joints:

     These are the condileloid type joints between the heads of five metatarsal hones and the base of proximal phalanges. There are flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction and cirumduction movements in these joints.

Interphalangeal joints:

     There are hinge type of joints between the head of phalanges and concave bases of the phalanges of close by. There are flexion and extension movement in these joints.

Impact of age on the joint:

     Often, the quantity of synovial fluid gets reduced in the joints as the age grows and the cartilage becomes thin. The ligaments become small and less flexible. The result of it is that diseases like arthritis, bursitis and other many joint related diseases come into existence.