Skeletal system

Skeletal system 

Treatment by a doctor :

         There are 200 bones in the body according to modern massage therapy. Twenty six bones are in backbone, 64 bones in arms, 23 in skull, 25 in the chest and 62 in the feet. These bones make skeletal system by attaching with nerves and tendons. Some bones are small, some long and some flat. Long bones are in the foot and hands and these bones radium, ulna, humerus, tibia, fibula etc are made of shaft of bone and epiphysis. 

         Holes through which blood arteries flow are in the epiphysis. The size and condition of these holes depends on the kind of bones. Diaphysis and epiphysis are not clear in small bones and the size of the bones is not regular as bones of ankle, bones of vertebral and bones of wrist. Bones, which are flat, are like parietal bone and posterior bone. Pneumatic are hollow from inside and there is air in these bones. Bones of jaw are strong in these bones. 

Formation of bones:

         Know about the formation of bones before the treatment of bone disease. Bones are made of different kinds of parts as moveable membrane, bony element (hard and porous) cartilage and morrow.

Moveable membrane:

  • It is a double hard membrane which is made of tissues by meeting altogether. It covers the external surface of bones and saves them and it plays role in the growth of bones and their nutrition. It is a solid substance whereas spongy is porous. Almost external portion of all the bones are made of solid substance and there are many pores under it.
  • There are only solid substances in the diaphysis, which are long whereas there is covering of solid substance on the porous substance in the epiphysis. Deep solid substances are situated inside the porous substance and there are blood arteries and nerves inside the pipe in it.

Bony and spongy:

         In this way, these elements are arranged inside the hole so that they may produce maximum capacity against the external powers.


         Cartilage is between the diaphysis and epiphysis. It reconstructs cells and helps in the growth of bones and the external portion of the bones which joints to the bones is such cartilage in which movement is done easily and bear jolts easily. 


  • These bones are long and it is filled in the small chasm of spongy elements. Red corpuscles originate in the latticed tissues and when these tissues become loose, the production of blood stops.
  • Bones are made of half solid organic substance, water and inorganic calcium but they have a little calcium. The bone bend abnormally in the beginning when a child starts to walk. Just opposite of it, the quantity of calcium in the bone is so much in the bones of elder people that they become fragile. For example, the bones of a child has been bent. In this case, the digestion system of the child should be made normal according to modern massage therapy by giving pressure on the legs and stomach for the treatment of legs. In this way, bones become strong. If one take sun bath during this treatment, the patient gets lots relief because the skin of the body gets vitamin d from the sun rays. 

Functions of bones:

  • They are the base of the body and control the body.
  • They are helpful in sustaining the normal posture.
  • They make bodily chasm as cerotic chasm, chest chasm, spinal cord and clyster chasm.
  • They save internal body organs.
  • Bones are able in moving in different directions and angles because of the tendons which joint bones altogether.
  • Red and white blood corpuscles originate in the marrow of bones.
  • Diaphysis collects calcium in the substance so that it may be mixed in blood circulation when it is needed.

Structures of bones joint:

         When two bones are close to each other, they connect to each other in this way as a socket of any tool. This connection is called joint. One edge of this joint is convex and another is concave. There is a capsule joint around this joint which make the chasm of joint. Internal membrane of capsule excretes a kind of smooth secretion for greasiness and it strengthens to the joint. For checking too much expansion, the nerve joints both bones outside the smooth membrane.

Kinds of bones joints:

Pivot joint:

         The surface of this joint is thick and cylindrical and its axis moves on the pivot which sinks into the deep layer of bones as chasm and the movement of this kind of joint is single axis. Example of this joint is the joint of fingers.

Round joint:

         This joint is convex and its surface is round whereas its concave is like a hollow cup. Joints of shoulder and hip are the examples of this joint.

Axis joint:

         This joint is cylindrical convex and in the form of jointed which make joints by dissolving in the mortice of other bone’s deep chasm. Its convex joint can move on the pivot of surface. The cause behind this joint is upper arm. 

Joint like pad:

         This joint is in the form of deep chasm of the surface of convex joint. Its movement is multi axis and each bone moves on the angle same angle of each other. Joint of wrist is the example of this padded joint.

Gliding joint:

         Both surfaces of this joint are flat and because of which they move a little and both bones can move parallel to each other. Internal vertebral is the example of this joint.

Less moveable joint:

         This joint is made of convex joints and concave surfaces and the movement is almost impossible because of the presence of hard nerves around the joint. Sacrum and iliac and internal joint of the wrist are the example of this kind of joint.

Immoveable joint:

  • This joint is excessive expanded and this kind of joint can move on the important and less important surface of convex joint. joint of carps is the example of this joints.
  • For the bone growth of the nerves, support of modern massage therapy is taken. All the diseases related to bones are cured by this treatment and thus bone develops properly. 

Any disease in the bones and nerves:

  • Mostly long bones become soft because of the deficiency of vitamin D. Abnormal bend comes in the front, last and lateral region of the back bone and there is a bend in the legs like hind letters va and ga. If there is any deformation in the bones, disease originates.
  • Copula nerve vertebrae are connected to front and posterior portion and when there is a historical change in some bones, they become hard. Mostly, nerve vertical to back region and spinal cords get contracted. Due to this region, several diseases originate in the body. Sometimes, bones become very large because of coming hardness in the muscles. In this case, movement of bones become limited and the blood circulation become unsystematic. In addition to, the process of metabolism gets reduced and the back bone becomes contracted.     
  • The quantity of calcium gets reduced in the tissues of bones because of growing age and the bone marrow cavity spread very much. Excessive weakness comes in the body because of these reasons and bones start to break or become zigzag.

Normal limitations of body bones’ movement:

Neck bone:

  • This bone can be bent from 0 degree to 60 to 50 degree up and down.
  • The neck can be curved here and there from 0 degree to 90 degree to 50 degree.
  • The neck can be bent towards arm from 0 degree to 50 degree here and there.
  • The backbone can be bent from the middle above the hip to the 35 degree towards the both thighs.
  • The backbone can be curved to the 35 degree towards left and right side above the hip.
  • The bone of wrist can be bent from 0 degree to 90 to 70 degree.
  • The bone of wrist can be curved left to right from 25 degree to 65 degree.
  • Bones of hand’s fist can be curved left and right from 0 degree to 90 degree.
  • Long bones of the hand can be curved from the root of shoulder from 0 degree to 50 degree in front and back side. 
  • Long bone of the hand can be curved from upside to below side from 0 degree to 90 degree.  
  • The bone of hand can be bent from the armpit to the 90 degree up and 50 degree towards the chest.
  • Bones of hand can be bent from 0 degree to 160 degree near the elbow.
  • Bone of the foot can be bent from 0 degree to 125 degree near the hip and knee.
  • Bone of the foot can be bent from 0 degree to 90 degree upwards by lying on the ground.
  • A person can bend his foot bone right or left side from 0 degree to 45 degree by standing.
  • Bone of the foot can be bent from 0 degree to 45 degree near the knee.
  • Bone of the foot can be bent upside to back from 0 degree to 15 degree by lying on the earth.
  • Bone of the foot can be bent from 0 to 130 degree upwards near the knee by lying on the ground.
  • The bone of heel of foot can be bent from 0 to 45 degree downwards the sole of foot and from 0 degree to 20 degree upwards the sole of foot.
  • The bone near about the heel can be bent right and left from 0 degree to 30 degree and from 0 degree to 20 degree.