The piece of solid metal that can attract iron pins and any other iron made objects, called magnet.
Magnetic (magnetized) object-
The objects which are attracted by magnet, is called Magnetic (magnetized) objects.
When a magnet attracts any magnetic object toward itself from a certain distance, the distance (area) between the magnet and the object is called magnetic field.
Types of magnet-
1. natural magnet- In many years ago, few black stones had been discovered from the earth in the place named magnesia in the miner province of Europe. These stones have been called by the name of its origin place magnesia as ‘Magnet’. Magnet is an English word which is known as chumbat in Hindi. This magnet is also known as loadstone or natural magnet. It is called loadstone, because when it is hanged down freely in the air, it is turned again (back) in its initial position and faces towards two particular directions. A unique (extraordinary/exceptional) property is also found in these stones that make an oxide in the form of iron and oxygen. The chemical formula of it- these stones are primarily composed of iron and oxygen.
2. artificial magnet- Human has converted the natural magnet in to different shape and size (forms) for various purposes. According to need (use), the power of magnets can be increased and decreased. Thus, it can be said that the magnets made by human is called artificial magnet (man-made magnet). Few artificial magnets are rod shaped, few are in shape of English alphabet ‘U’, few are needle-shaped and few of them are round in shape. The magnetic field of this magnet is toward one direction.
Man-made magnets (artificial magnets) can be divided into two parts-
1. Permanent magnets- the magnets those remain magnetized for long time (permanently) once they have been fully charged with electric current. These types of magnet are used in electric measuring devices, sound volumes, telephone, radio, D.C. of electricity and magnetic treatment (magneto therapy).
2. Temporary magnets (electro-magnets)- electro-magnets are those the magnetism of which can be increased or decreased according to our needs. These types of magnets work only when they are connected with electricity. They are used in various fields like- telegraph, machines, electric cranes, door bells, many electric devices, etc. on the basis of its different properties, it is used in several
types of devices (instruments).
Other types of magnets-
Ceramic magnet- these types of magnets are found in half moon-shaped. These magnets have less magnetic power (gauss strength). These are used in medical field to treat the diseases of small children and other types of diseases like- dwarf ness, conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils), sleeplessness, etc.
The magnets having neither high nor low gauss strength (magnetic power) - such types of magnets have more magnetic power than ceramic magnet. These types of magnets are used on the palms and soles of small children. These magnets are used in toothache, earache and diseases of any soft organs.
High powered magnets (which have high gauss strength) - such types of magnets have more magnetic power than ceramic and middle powered magnets. These magnets are used in the treatment of different diseases of old people and used on the palms and soles. These are also used in many chronic diseases. These magnets are also used to magnetize water.
Precedent magnets- such types of magnets are used widely to magnetize water. These magnets are used in large scale for curing various diseases of elder people as well as also used to cure chronic diseases.