Introduction of yoga


Principles of yoga :
Posture Categories :
Mudrayain :


          The description of the yoga has been described in many granthas (epics), Upnishadas, Purans and Geeta. Several types of ways have been described in all yoga granthas. However, all type of yoga has only one aim and that is ‘making the body and mind calm and healthy. Yoga sadhana is very necessary for all the people as food, water and air are. Thinking that yoga kriya is only for the yogis is ignorance.

       The description of eight parts of yoga has been described in yoga granthas as- Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. In all these yogic activities, the last stage of Dhyana is Samadhi and it is only for yogis.

           A person can practice of all the activities of Yoga except Samadhi because practice of asana has been made in yoga to make the body healthy.

      Pranayama makes the mind and brain constant and healthy. In Pratyahara and dharana, the mind is made constant by concentrating it for getting internal powers or divine power.  

          In the practice of meditation, power is achieved by contemplating and ruminating on the internal power and subtle body and these powers are used to for good works. A person gets the knowledge of supernatural powers because of involving in continuous meditation.

          When a person achieves such condition by practicing meditation that he forgets outer world, this condition is called the stage of Samadhi. The person, who achieves Samadhi by immerging in meditation, gets salvation in the last.

          The practice of yoga activities is done to get physical and mental health and spiritual knowledge.  

         Human life is a mixture of gross substances, structural components and subtle invisible substantive conscious. There are many physical activities in the structural system of human body as breathing system, digestive system, ear senses, etc.

         Besides the system of the mind and brain, there are some internal, subtle and immaterial elements in the consentience system.

          It controls the physical, mental and speaking activity of the whole physical body by meeting with external structural parts through a intra communication system and they have a contaminated and negative effect on the mental condition. Changing this negative thinking in the mind is the ultimate aim of yoga and meditation.  

          In Indian culture, ‘yoga sadhana’ is being considered as a part of the human life since ancient time. Nobody has the real knowledge about the origin of ‘yoga sadhana’.

         According to some yoga gurus, yoga sadhana came into existence about 500 years ago and according to some yoga scholars, yoga started about 2500 years ago. However, according to Hindu religion’s granthas, practice of yoga sadhana is continued since ancient time.

          In ancient time, saints and hermits kept the body healthy by practicing yoga sadhana and then they merge in God while practicing dharana, dhyana (meditation) and Samadhi in the long age (which is achieved by yoga sadhana). Here it means to say that they used to become free from the cycle of life and death.

          Yoga sadhana has been started in the world for the physical and mental health of human being. All the persons used to practice of yoga sadhana in ancient time and they got physical health and long life by its adoption. This yoga sadhana is continued since ancient time.

          In the modern time, on one hand where population and technology are developing fast, the needs are increasing fast too on the other hand. All the needs are being completed by the science at present but problems are originating in the human life with equal speed. Today, several persons are unhealthy mentally and physically.

          Many types of mental and physical diseases are taking people in their grip. There are also some such diseases of which treatment is out of reach of science.

          Nowadays, where persons have not time to do any type of work, they are not getting any type of good or proper treatment to cure mental problems.

          In this modern time, there are different types of diseases of which treatment is very complicated. Medical science claims that treatment of such diseases is possible in medical science. However, such treatments are so costly to afford by all people.

         Mostly, people do not get sound health after taking the medicines, which are prescribed to keep the body healthy. Till this moment, medical science has not made such discovery, which may provide mental peace and joy to human being.

           Some such types of medicines have been made by the medical science, which bring sleep or senselessness and the patient is made calm for sometime. However, when the patient awakes, he suffers from same types of mental problems.

          Therefore, there is only one way to remove all the physical and mental problems from the life of human being. Common people as and the gods have been used. This Sadhana is ‘yoga’. A person can sustain his physical and mental health by this yoga sadhana in this modern time.  

          Only yoga is a source, which can keep the body disease free. This yoga sadhana is being used since ancient time in India. We know that people of ancient time were very strong, long, wide and healthy than the modern people.

         They lived long life than the people of modern time. The reason behind it is that people of ancient time had complete knowledge of yoga and they used to practice yoga and those people who had no knowledge about yoga used to practice of different activities of the yoga in any way.  

          These activities of yoga done willingly or unwillingly used to provide long life and health to them. There is another reason too behind the benefits of yoga. We know that different types of diseases occur due to polluted subtle nuclear atom (which are present in the air) and destruction of trees and plants.

          The physical health of people gets affected because of the air pollution whereas people come in the grip of mental tensions because of not coming in the contact of plants and trees. A person does not get mental peace in the absence of natural environment all around. Whereas, Yoga practice brings human being in the contact of the nature because of that, the mind and brain get peace and concentration and the body becomes healthy.

          Indian people have been using yoga since ancient time and people started to understand the benefits of yoga. Nowadays, not only practice of yoga sadhana is being adopted in India but also China, Japan, Russia, America and many more countries are also adopting it.

          People of those countries where many astonished inventions have been discovered by the science consider good to the yoga treatment. In India and other countries, doctors advise to adopt the practice of yoga along with their treatment to the patient. Thus, more and more people are becoming healthy. Yoga is useful for all persons as old person, children, youth, women, patient, healthy person etc.  

          In common language, ‘yoga’ is very easy way to live with peace and pleasure. Without yoga, the mind and body become the center of many types of disorders. A person does not get worldly and spiritual pleasure without yoga. Therefore, he can get advantage according to his desire after adopting yoga.

          He can remove all life problems by yoga. A person can remove his mental and physical problems and he can stay healthy and happy by practicing yoga sadhana. If any person wants to know about the god or high position of the life, he can get that place by forwarding on the path of mediation and Samadhi.

In the ‘Bhagawat Geeta’, Lord Shri Krishana says while instructing to Arjuna-

Tapasivamya, adhikah, yogih, gynaymimyah api, mat adhikah

Kamimyah cha, adhikah yogi tasmat yogi bhava Arjuna.

          God Shri Krishana think that yoga is better than yogi, ascetic, knowledge and deeds. In the Mahabharata, the God Shri Krishana says at the time of giving preach about the lesson of the ‘Geeta’ that O Arjuna, the yogi enters in my inner soul after becoming proficient in yoga so Arjuna let be yogi too.

What is yoga?

          The word Yoga is made of the ‘yuja dhatu’ of Sanskrit language. It means joining or meeting because this word is made of yuj dhatu.

          In yoga activities or sadhana, a person joins with God power by his self-knowledge besides his physical health. There is a meeting of soul and supernatural soul in yoga sadhana. In this meeting, the physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual knowledge of human being is included.

          According to great Gurus of Yoga, “yoga joins all the powers of the body, brain and soul with God”. They say that it means keeping the brain, mind, feelings and desires in the discipline.  

          In the words of yoga language, it can be said that yoga makes such balance of the soul being that a person may see all types of conditions of the life with same feelings.

          A person gets spiritual knowledge along with physical and mental development by the yoga.

          Several meanings have been described in yoga. Yoga means ‘controlling the restlessness of the mind. Nagoji Bhatta describes the definition of yoga in this way-rhythm of the endowment of inner soul is yoga viz. subjugating the mind, which commands the body, is yoga.

          There are two kinds of yoga according to sampragyata and asampragyata.

        There are some such types of writers too, who describe the different form of yoga. People, who write and study about hathyoga, tell different meaning of yoga. While describing the description of yoga, it has been called that joining yoga with soul and God will be wrong because according to philosophy, soul and organism are not different things and the difference of soul and God cannot be divided. So, this difference is wrong because consciousness is single.

           A person who merges in Samadhi and awakens his consciousness by yoga to finish the difference that originates because of the ignorance. As, it has been written in “Vedhanta Darshan”- when Ghata and Matha the dignity of ghatakosh and mathakosh end, only one mahakosh remains, so merging a creature in God after ending all the worldly emotions of the creature is yoga. A person behaves after rising from the common life by the yoga and his mind and soul (subtle body) mingle with God. Therefore, mingling of God and soul has been called Yoga. 

          The description of eight parts of yoga has been described in Yoga grantha. While performing all the activities of yoga, having control on the mind’ volatility and concentrating all consciousness after reaching in Asampragyata Samadhi is yoga.   

          Saints and scholars of ancient time considered that only one element is found in the living and nonliving. A soul element is present in the human, which is called consciousness. This consciousness element joints the whole universe with God. When the consciousness element of the human being joins with the consciousness element of universe by the yoga, physical strength and internal power of the human being increases thousands times.  

Description of yoga in Bhagvata Geeta”-

‘Karmas Koshalam yoga’-

          Completing any work is yoga. In other words, the work, which is done by the mind and body, is called yoga. Any creature (who lives in the world) does its work daily. Works are completed by the help of body parts and according to the mind and endures the result of those deeds. If a person does good deeds, he gets good results and if he does bad deeds, he gets bad results. According to ‘Bhagvata Geeta’ this is yoga.

          According to Upanishads, yoga is that high condition of consciousness in which all the activities of the mind and brain stop.

          Swami shivanand says clearly while describing yoga that yoga is a unification of the brain, heart and hands or unification and adjustment of the mind, voice and deeds. Thus, Swami Satyananda Saraswati says while describing yoga that several other positive virtues originate because of the physical and mental harmony. Thus, many definitions of the yoga originate. Some definitions of yoga are being given below which have been chosen from Yog khand of Bhagvat Geeta -

  • The condition towards the success and failure of yoga is wisdom.
  • Yoga is the efficiency and dexterity of the work.
  • Yoga is the highest success of the life.
  • Yoga finishes sadness and sorrow.

          Yoga can be described in the form of consciousness, creativity, personality development and self-science and the science of the body and brain too. The meaning of yoga can be different for all people but this fact is completely clear that yoga has a relation with the mind, brain and consciousness of human being.

          Merging the mind thoughts in the soul after stabilizing by the yoga is yoga. The mind does the functions like other parts of the body but the worldly things govern the mind but the mind is attached with the soul too and the governance of mind remains active by that subtle element soul. The mind inspires soul to imbibe the external objects. The mind keeps on doing its work all the time and it is active and fickle. The mind always keeps on deviating here and there. The mind can remain by joining with the whole body together.  

          According to ‘Maharshi Pantajali’, calming or stopping the nature and restlessness of the mind from deviating in external things is yoga.

          According to yoga darshana of Pantajali, the mind is brought in the condition of filtering by making the ideas of mind stable and concentrated. This mind always keeps on trying to live in holy condition, true and natural condition, but senses keep on diverting to the mind. Merging the mind in soul by separating from the worldly things is yoga. Yoga is such source by which human being can observe the appearance of the conscious soul by controlling the mind.

          There are eight parts of Yoga to join soul and God as Yama, Niyam, asana, prayanama, pratyahara, dharana, meditation and Samadhi.

          There are many activities of yoga sadhna, but all the activities have only one aim. Just as all the rivers (which blow in the mountains) have different names and have different ways of blowing but all these rivers join in the sea at last. Just as rivers have not their existence after meeting in the sea and they become the part of the sea in the same way the human being mingles in God while performing the practice of different activities of the yoga.

          All the desires of worldly things are not needed for human being after getting supreme being by the yoga and he observes God in all the things of the world. The mind gets right knowledge by yoga and the mind starts to concentrate towards the soul element by which the mind gets ultimate peace. In this world, if a person wants to get knowledge of God or he wants to know about the subtle power of which this world is controlled, and he wants to know about the existence of life, it can be got only by one thing and that is yoga.

There are many kinds of yoga as karma yoga, Raj yoga, Hathyoga, Bhakti yoga, Kundilini power, Mantra yoga, Gyan yoga.There are many kinds of Yoga-

          A person can practice of any yoga activity according to his desire. Doing any yoga activity among these according to rules is yoga. Any way of yoga is not easy and the patience and self-confidence are the biggest success in the practice. Performing hard practices in all these ways is necessary. 

Bhakti Yoga-

          The person, who merges in emotions or adoration by nature, is called bhakti yogi. Whether, Bhakti is towards God or country or any great personality or guru.

Karam yoga-

          The person, who remains busy in his work all the time, is called karam yogi. It has written in Yoga Vashishhta-“when any person keeps on doing his work properly without any greed or desire or result, this is karam yoga. Walking on the way this karam yoga is difficult. People of modern time have desire of result before doing any work. Therefore, abandoning such type of desire in modern time is the biggest yoga.

Gyana yoga-

          In this yoga, such types of people come, who study shastra-puranas and they think the meaning of things according to their knowledge. They are able to show some different things in the world on the base of their experience and knowledge, such types of people are known by the name of yogi. People, who merge in this yoga, live with some especial emotions in the mind on his own base. In the mind of such types of people, when these feeling originate that ‘Who I am? What is my existence? Why worldly activity keeps on changing by itself? Who is circulating this world? They go in the search of realty. It is called self-knowledge. The person, who makes concentration and peace to get this knowledge and searches the truth during contemplation, is yogi.

Raja yoga-

          People, who contemplate and study any activity deeply with their mental actions and reactions, are known Raja Yogi. These types of people try to know about the subtle power. In this yoga, the persons have to go in deep of self-observation. The description of eight parts of Yoga has been described in yoga Darshan. By adopting all the parts of the yoga people get self-knowledge and they are able to observe that subtle power by which this world is active and the existence of the human is present.


          Hathyoga activity means doing any activity forcibly. When a person chooses such type of way, which is difficult to increase his consciousness and will power or develop his position of the brain, it is hathyoga. Saint Pantajali writes in ‘Yoga Darshan’ by that checking the restlessness of the mind by the practice of yoga is yoga. Stabilizing the deviation or volatility of the mind by concentrating the mind in a way is yoga. After that, restrain the mind by sitting in any asana or by the hathyoga activity.

          In Hath yoga, the meaning of the letter “Ha” is Chandra (moon) and the meaning of the letter “Tha’ is surya (sun). The left nostril has been called Chandra and right nostril has been called surya in yoga. The air, which goes through the right nostril, is flown in ‘Pingla nerve’ and the air, which goes through the left nostril, is flown in ‘Eda nerve’. A person remains alive by circulating air in the body. Physical activity is done in the human life due to air, which flows through the surya nerve and the mind activity is done due to air, which flows through Chandra nerve. Physical activity stays active due to excessive activity of surya nerve.

          For sustaining the balance in the physical and mental activity, both nostrils should be equal. Blowing the air through both the nostrils equally is the main base of the hathyoga activity. Physical activity of hathyoga is called asana. Prayanama and mudra are also the parts of hatayoga. The activity, which is very difficult in performing, is called hathyoga, and a person gets physical and mental cleanness by it.

Kundilini yoga-

          kundilini yoga is such yoga activity in which a  person awakes kundalini power present inside the body and gets divine power and knowledge. Kundalini power is called plexus in English language. This power is present in sleeping condition in the lower part of the navel in the spinal cord. This is the center of vitality power by which all the nerves are controlled. 

          In yoga shastra, the description of six chakras has been done in human being. When the kundalini power is awaked by the meditation, this power makes all the parts active while forwarding towards the brain after awaking. By awaking these chakras with the kundalini, a person gets divine power and knowledge. Awaking the kundalini power in the body by this meditation is called kundilini yoga.

Mantra yoga-

          Different types of mantras have been used in many granthas, vedas and puranas of Hindu religion of Indian culture. These mantras have excessive power because the waves, which flow by reading these mantras, shiver to the bulky and subtle parts of the body. After many scientific researches, it has been proved that words, which have been used in mantras, have excessive powers.

          Some such words are found in the mantras, which are called “elf waves’. This word of mantra is pronounced in the 8-13 cycle per second and this sound wave originates in the human concentration too. The thing, which is made from these words, is called mantra. The sound, which originates because of the adoration of mantras, is called mantra yoga.

          There are also some yoga as prema yoga, laya yoga, naad yoga, shiva yoga, dhyana yoga etc. All these are the small forms of yoga. Doing any work of these yogas with full interest is yoga. Remembering GOD with faith and adoration is also yoga.

Laya yoga-

          Laya yoga is very easy and normal yoga to achieve God. Making rhythm between the vitality and the mind is the meeting of soul and God. Merging all the things in the soul is laya yoga. Merging the mind in inner soul after separating from external subjects is laya yoga.

Naad yoga-

          Just as in the yoga, there is sidhda asana for the asana and kumbhak prayanama in powers in the same way rhythm and naad are also present. Naad yoga has been called great to know the God. When any person starts to get success in it, he hears the naad. Hearing naad is the hint of getting fulfillment. Naad Samadhi is fulfilled by khechari mudra

         When there is true hutch for any work in the mind of a person, love (prem) originates. When love or devotion is too much strong in the man, it is called premyoga. In this condition, the person has deep and abyssal devotion toward God. When this devotion reaches in last condition, the person gets God.