Human anatomy


HUMAN ANATOMY


Introduction-

        The frame like structure made by all our bones is called skeletal system. Only with the help of this frame, our body maintains its erect posture. There are total 206 bones in an adult human being.

There are three types of bones-

  • Long.
  • Small or short.
  • Flat.

Chief functions of the bones-

  • Giving support and shape to the body.
  • Keeping the muscles attached.
  • Connecting different joints.
  • Protecting important and delicate (soft) organs like- brain, lungs, heart, etc.
  • Producing red blood cells of bone marrow.

Bones’ joint- the place in the body where any two or more bones are connected with each other is called joint. There are two types of bones-

  • Immovable joints or Synarthroses- this type of joint is found in head bones.
  • Movable joints or Diarthroses- it is ball and bowl shaped joint. It is found in shoulders.
  • Slightly movable joints or Amphiarthroses- the joints of vertebral column are called Amphiarthroses.
  • Hinge joints- this type of joint is found in elbow and knees.
  • Bone ligament- it works as giving support to and tying joints.

Muscles- muscles are attached with bones and provide movement on contraction. Fat and connecting fiber are present on the muscles which attach the muscle with skin. It is mainly of two types-

  1. Voluntary.
  2. Involuntary.

A network of blood vessels is found in between muscles and skin.

Skin- sweat glands, fat glands and hairs’ root are found inside the skin. The sweat glands help in maintaining the body temperature.

Trunk and its parts-

  1. The trunk consists of mainly chest and stomach. There is a diaphragm between both the chest and stomach to make them separate.
  2. There are two main organs found inside the chest- heart and lungs. There is one heart in human body and found in the left side of the chest while lungs are two in numbers each present in both left and right sides of the chest.
  3. Stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, kidney and urinary bladder are present inside the stomach.

Functional system of human body (physiology)-

Nervous system- the information of every activities or reaction or physical incidents is reached to the brain through nervous system in the form of nerve impulses and then the brain gives order, according to the information, to that particular body organs to react or response. In other words, the main function of the nervous system is to carry nerve impulses from the body part to the brain and vice-versa. 

Blood circulatory system- as much blood pumped by the heart circulates in the entire body through blood-circulatory system. This system also carries impure blood from different body parts to the heart.

Respiratory system- Fresh and pure air goes in to our lungs through this system where the lungs purify the impure blood carried from different body parts and then forward pure blood to the heart.  

Digestive system:  this system helps in digestion the food, distributing it to different body parts and removing out waste products from the body through anus in the form of stools. For completing all these works, the parts of this system which play important role are – mouth, duodenum, stomach, intestine, rectum, liver, gall bladder and anus.

  • The function of both the kidneys is to remove out stool and urine.
  • The glands help in producing hormones and in physical growth.
  • The generation of human beings goes on running through reproductive organs.
  • Sense organs watch outer environment and sends its impulses to the brain. There are total five sense organs found inside the body- eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.