Growth of embryo


GROWTH OF EMBRYO


Pregnancy articles:
21. Birth

Introduction-

          When a male and female involve in sexual intercourse, within few hours, the sperm of male and the ovum of female are fertilized and formed a zygote. After 24 hours, this zygote is divided in to 2 parts and then it is divided again in to 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 chambers (cavities). In this way, these chambers form a big group within 72 hours. The baby nourishing inside the uterus is known as the embryo up to 8 weeks (about 2 months).       

          Fertilized ovum keeps on moving in the cavity of fallopian tube gradually up to one week as well as the zygote also keeps on dividing in to chambers. In the third week, it is attached with the internal soft layer of the uterus. Here, the embryo keeps on growing. With the development (growth) of the embryo, the uterus size goes on increasing.   

          In the beginning of pregnancy, a membrane is grown around the embryo and makes a bag like structure filling with a special type of fluid and the embryo presents as swimming in this fluid. The temperature of this fluid remains constant all the time due to which, the baby does not feel cold or hot inside the uterus.  

          Within one month after conception, the ovary is grown in to ¼ inch. In 1/3 part of it, the head, raised part of back and the structure of hands-legs are visible. After that, the growth of spinal cord is started. The raised part of back is converted in to muscles and then the marks of face, eyes, nose, ears mouth, etc. starts to appear. At one end of it, a tail about 2 mm is located that persists till the last of second month.  

          In the fourth week of pregnancy, the embryo is attached to the internal wall of the uterus and keeps on getting its nutrition and oxygen. From the fifth week of pregnancy, the structure of the brain is started. In this week, a tube starts growing in the upper layer of chambers that is changed in to brain and navel tube later. Addition to it, the foetal heart also starts growing. In this stage, the embryo is grown up to 2 mm.   

          In the sixth-seventh week of pregnancy, a big raised part is appeared on the head of the embryo with the growth of heart. Heartbeats also start that can be heard with the help of a type of particular instrument. The raised part in the place of foetus eyes and ears are also grown. On the place of his/her hands and legs, small raised parts are grown. After about 8 weeks, the embryo is grown up to 8 mm. 

          In the eighth and ninth week of pregnancy, the face and eyes start appearing easily. The tongue, heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, fingers, toes and thumbs start growing. In the ninth week, the embryo is grown up to 17 mm.

          Up to 12th week, all the internal organs of the body have grown, but their growing process keeps on continuing. As it has described earlier that the embryo keeps on swimming in amniotic fluid inside the uterus. This fluid provides protection to the embryo by outside problems. Up to this time, the mother did not able to feel the movement of the baby. The uterus keeps on growing upward and starts appearing as raised the abdomen from outside. In about 14th week, the embryo is grown up to 56 mm. the external genitals start growing, but it is not found that the embryo is male or female.

          Up to about 15 to 22 weeks, the embryo grows with motion. Hairs start appearing on the head. Eye lids start growing, but remain closed. At this time, the embryo has active. The movement of the embryo is felt by mother in 18th to 20th week. This feeling is called quickening. Teeth start growing. After 22nd week, the embryo is grown up to 160 mm.

          From 23rd to 30th week, the embryo becomes active little more and sometimes can jump too by touching the stomach from outside. He/she starts taking hiccups that is felt by mother as light jerks. He/she drinks amniotic fluid in little too and urinates. At this time, the heartbeats of baby can be heard by keeping ear on the mother’s stomach. If the baby takes birth in 28th weeks due to any reason, he/she does not able to liver longer. Eyelids open first time in 26th week.

          Flesh is grown on the foetal body in between 31st to 40th weeks. In 32nd week, the foetal head becomes stable (motion less). In 36th week, the foetus is grown up to 46 cm. in 40th week; the foetus is grown completely and ready to come out in this world through birth. In few women, foetal growth takes place in slow motion that may be responsible for delay birth.  

          The delivery date can vary from 5 to 7 days due to slow or fast growth of the foetus, but if the child takes birth in 41st week, doctor should be called for help.

          Well, the whole period of pregnancy is about 280 days. In the ninth month, the foetal length is about 20 inches and weight is about 3.5 kg. The head comes downward; hands and legs start moving; fat is gathered beneath the skin. At this time, veins do not visible. All the organs start appearing clearly and the foetus is become ready to take birth.  

Changes in the uterus-

          With the growth of foetus, there are certain types of changes also takes place in the uterus. The foetus remains attached with the internal wall of the uterus and keeps on getting its nutrition. Foetal heart functions and blood circulation are related to the mother’s blood circulation. When the mother takes medicines in case of anemia, it also affects the baby. Sometimes, the placenta is situated in the lower section of the uterus that can separate the uterus and placenta. In this condition, bleeding can take place during pregnancy or before delivery.

          Normally, the uterus is 7 cm long, 5 cm wide and 2.5 cm thick. In the last period of pregnancy, it is grown in to 38 cm in length, 25 cm in width and  cm in thickness. The normal weight of the uterus is about 40 g that is increased up to 800 g in pregnancy period.

Amniotic membrane-

          As it has described earlier that the baby is present inside the amniotic membrane in the view of protection in which amniotic fluid is filled and the child remains as swimming in this fluid.

          At the time of birth (delivery), this membrane is broken and amniotic fluid present inside it is come out and the uterus is contracted. By this contraction, the pressure falls on the baby and he/she takes birth.

          Addition to it, different types of physical information can be also found out by this amniotic fluid. During physical growth of the foetus, few cells are fallen in this fluid. After studying these cells with the help of electronic microscope, it can be diagnosed about the sex and hereditary diseases of the baby. This fluid is tested by needle and known as amni-ocentisis.

Precaution-

          Amni-ocentisis should be done only by an expert doctor, because sometimes, it may become responsible for miscarriage. The movement of the foetus can be found out only through this fluid. In this fluid, the baby can remain as moving without any troubles. This movement is important for foetal growth.