FASCES


FASCES


        Fasces excrete out about 150 gram in quantity from the body i.e. 100 gram in water and 50 gram in solid materials. In addition to water and bacteria, other waste products of intestinal walls or indigested food substances like- cellulose and blood as well as bile pigments, nitrogen, fat, etc. are present in fasces. The color of fasces is due to changing of bile pigments or bilirubin of the products of brownish red RBC. Due to presence of fat in extra in the food, its color is changed into light pale and due to presence of food having blood and iron materials, its color is converted into black.    

        The fasces has special smell produced due to presence of two substances- indole and skatole produced after being rotten of cell debris, dead bacteria, indigested amino acids, indigested foods. The addition quantity of protein in food also increases the smell of fasces, because it produces extra amount of indole and skatole. 

Movements of the large intestine and defecation- Most of the movements of large intestine are slow and non-propulsive. Initial movement starts by the contraction taking place in hostrum that depends on the automatic rhythm of smooth muscular cells. These movements are like that of sectional movements of small intestine, but the contraction taken place in them often occurs after 20 to 30 minutes. Due to this slow movement only, remaining water and salts are being absorbed completely. 

        After taking food, movements are become fast by synchronized contraction taking place 3-4 times in a day in ascending and transversal colon, resulting fasces is moved to half to three and fourth part of the colon in length within few seconds. These sweeping is called mass movements. It moves the fasces in descending colon where it remain stored before coming out. 

        Internal things are moved in the large intestine by duodenocolic reflex. When food reaches in the stomach, mass movements occur in the colon by gastrocolic reflex. Reflex travels from stomach to colon through the secretion of gastrin and external voluntary nerves. Gastrocolic reflex pushes fasces in rectum and the fasces come out by defecation reflex from anus.   

Excretion-

  • The rectum is become wider after gathering of fasces, walls are being stretched and pressure is increased in the rectum, resulting the receptors present in rectum walls are stimulated. 
  • If one wants to excrete out, defecation reflex is started. Due to the stimulation of mass movements in descending colon, internal anus contraction is become slower at this time. As a result of it, the rectum and sigmoid colon are being contracted forcedly.  
  • By the contraction of abdominal muscles and dyframe and by applying force downwards, the internal pressure of the stomach is increased and generates the process of pushing. As a result of it, fasces get support to come out.
  • Defecation reflex starts in medulla oblongata and sends the stimulation in the sacral part of spinal cord.
  • External anus contraction and other perineal muscles push the fasces down ward after becoming stable with the help internal and external anus contraction resulting the fasces comes out from the body through the anus. 

         Besides very small children and those who are suffering from the disease of spinal cord, excretion is a voluntary action. Excretion can be controlled by contracting external anus contraction. When anyone determines once to hold excretion, nervous impulse coming from central nervous system stops the skeletal muscular fibers of external anus contraction strongly. The impulse of spinal cord also makes the rectum and sigmoid colon slow, resulting pressure of anus wall is decreased and the receptors are unable to become active. If excretion would hold for sometime knowingly, the walls of rectum go on absorbing the water present in the fasces continuously. As a result of it, one may become the victim of constipation. In small children 1-2 years old have no any control of excretion; it is done by reflex action in them. It happens in them, because impulsive nervous system is not able to develop completely, but it is developed completely with the growth of his/her age and excretion is become under their control.