Dressing and bandaging


DRESSING AND BANDAGING


Introduction-

        Dressing plays a very important role in treating any type of wounds or injuries, cuts, etc. after dressing, the possibility of infection is lessened (decreased); bleeding from them are controlled; they are not able to become more complicated and healed too soon.

        It is very compulsory for high quality dressing to be free from bacteria or having bacteria free dressing. It bacteria will present in dressing; the possibility of infection may become high. The dressing should have small holes in it so that secretion and sweat releasing from the wounds could come out properly.

        Such type of bacteria free dressing is available in the market which can be stuck over the wounds easily. it has a pad of gauge made up of cotton cloth and acts like absorber. The area around the wound is wiped or dried well before sticking this type of dressing on it and then all the edges of the dressing are pressed down hardly.

        In fact, this type of adhesive dressing is very suitable (the best) in primary treatment, but it is not available at any time and at every places. So, many times one who is giving primary treatment has to use other types of things too as dressing like- hanky, a piece of cloth, etc.

        Such type of dressing is also available in the market which is bacteria free, but is not adhesive (sticking). A pad of cotton is set on the surfaces of gauge in it and is tied with a round roller stripe resulting it does not able to move from its place. This type of dressing is sealed in a protective layer. This type of prepared dressing is easily available in different shape and size at every chemist’s shop.

        Normally, gauge is used for dressing serious wounds. it is soft and can be bended easily as well as it also absorbs blood, pus, secretion, etc. coming out from them easily. in fact, this type of dressing is stuck on the wounds, but it helps the blood in becoming clot resulting they are healed soon. when the gauge is used as dressing, 1-2 layers of cotton is placed on it.

        In case of any type of accident, if dressing is not available on the spot, a soft neat and clean piece of cloth can be used for this purpose while giving primary treatment in such condition. There is no doubt that everyone have hanky with them, it can be also used on the wounds if it is clean. But, if gauge has been used on the wounds, a stripe or bandage should be tied over it for preventing it to move.      

It is very necessary to follow few precautions while dressing the wounds like-

  • You should need to wash your hands properly with soap and water before dressing the wounds.
  • The wound or the part of dressing which would come in contact of the wound should not be touched with your hands.
  • Do not cough over the wounds or dressing or around them, because bacterial may go in the wound or dressing.
  • Cover the wound well with sufficient cotton. If the cotton is coming out from the boundaries of dressing, it is better. To keep both of them on the wound properly,  tie a stripe over them.
  • If the dressing is stuck with the wound, do not try to remove it, but cut that section with scissors which can be separated easily.    

Bandaging- Bandaging is required on the affected part in the conditions of hurt, strain, bone fracture, etc. 

  • Bandaging is done for protecting the wound or injury from infection, dust, etc.
  • It is also done for preventing bleeding.
  • It is done to make blood circulation slow by giving pressure on any part of the body.
  • It is done to give support to any injured part, the muscles of any part of the body and blood vessels.
  • It is done to prevent movement of any injured part of the body.
  • It is done to lessen the movement of any joint or ending swelling.
  • After fixing (setting/joining) the fractured or dislocated bones, it is done to prevent dislocation again.
  • If a wound has been dressed, or cotton, cloth piece, splinter, etc. has been placed on it, bandaging is done to prevent such to move from their places.
  • After cold and hot fomentation, it is done.

Note- the stripe or bandage can not be tied on the wound until it has been practiced well. so, the method of tying bandage or stripe should be practiced before so that it could be done properly.

Types of bandages (stripes) - there are mainly two types of bandages-

  1. medicinal bandage (dressing).
  2. normal bandage.

Medicinal bandage (dressing)- the means used for covering any injured part is called dressing.

Two types of dressing is used in primary treatment-

  1. dry dressing.
  2. wet dressing.

Dry dressing- this type of dressing is done for protecting the wound, helping in healing it and giving appropriate pressure on it.

        For such types of wounds, the most reliable and bacteria free dressing is the piece of flallen which is stitched with normal bandage. This type of dressing is kept as packed in wax layered envelop. It can be purchased from any chemist’s shop. The instruction of using it is also printed on the envelop in which it is packed.

        If such type of bacteria free bandage is not available, a piece of clean flallen cloth can be also used for this purpose. If it is also not available at the time of need, clean and washed hanky or white piece of paper without printed can be also used instead of it, but such items like- piece of cloth, hanky or paper, etc. should be used only up to the availability of bacteria free bandage.

Wet dressing- this type of dressing is also of two types-

  1. dressing for cold fomentation.
  2. dressing for hot fomentation.

Dressing for cold fomentation- this type of dressing is used to provide relief from pain, eliminate swelling or prevent internal bleeding, etc.

        Keeping a clean and washed hanky or a piece of fellaleen cloth as four folded and soaked in cold water on the affected part is the using method of it. it is also necessary to change this type of dressing time to time for maintaining its wetness and coldness.

Dressing for hot fomentation-this type of dressing is used to ameliorate pain caused by wounds. after folding a clean and washed hanky or a piece of fallalen cloth four times, immerse it in hot water and then squeeze it. now, keep it on the affected part. it should be kept hot as longer as can possible. 

Note- one thing should always be kept in the mind while dressing that hot stripes (dressing) must be placed on the affected part only, because if it will come out from the boundary of the affected area, it may prove harmful for outer area.

Normal dressing (bandage)- there are many types of normal bandage-

  • Long bandage.
  • Triangular bandage (sling).
  • Multi-tailed bandage.
  • Adhesive bandage.

Long bandage (wrapping bandage) - Such types of dressing (bandages) can be made with the pieces of markene cloth in desired length and width. After making this type of bandages (dressing), it should be stored safely by rolling it so that outer dirt, dust, bacteria, etc. would not enter in it and would be unfolded easily at the time of need.

        Such type of dressing (bandages) is available also on chemist’s shops. It is made up of bacteria free net-like cloth (gauze), boric-Lint, flallene, etc. Normally, this type of bandage is found about 5 meter in length and with different width. It is rolled in roller. This is because it is also called ‘ludhki-patti’.      

        These bandages are made harder by wrapping them by hands or machine. When few part of it has wrapped and few has remained as opened; the wrapped part of it is known as end section and remaining is known as opened section.

        You should wash both your hands with soap or any bacteria free solution and water properly before using these bandages. It should be also kept in your mind that your breath would not fall directly on it while using.

        The remaining bandage after use should be kept safely by wrapping it in paper for later use.

 If ready made bandage is not available at the time of need suddenly, any clean and washed piece of thin cloth can be used for this purpose after tearing it in length. Clean and washed cotton saree and dhoti are the best for making such types of dressing. Silk or other cloth is not suitable for this purpose.

 The edge of the cotton saree or dhoti should be left while tearing bandages from it.

  Normally, a bandage about 2½ inch wide and 5 meter long is enough for tying it on the elbow or arms. The width of the bandage tying on the legs is same as in case of elbows or arms but its length should be 8-10 meters. If a bandage of this length is not available, two bandages can be tied together for making longer.

The bandage must be 5 inch wide and 10-12 meters long for tying it on the stomach or chest. If there is no any facility to stitch two bandages together for making them longer, after ending the first bandage, the second one should be started overlapping on it, but knot should not be tied for joining two bandages together, because it may create trouble for the sufferer and the location of bandage may be dislocated due to it.

Triangular bandage (Sling) - In case of getting hurt or injury in the arms; these bandages (stripes) are used for hanging the affected arm. At the need of keeping the fractured hand as bended with the support of stomach or chest or for keeping the hand as up in the conditions of such a wound in the arms, palms, fingers, thumbs, etc. which may start bleeding by hanging down. This type of bandage is called ‘Sling’ in English.

        For making such types of slings, the piece of cloth must be chosen strong so that they could hold the weight of arms properly. So, thick cotton cloth or any other strong cloth should be used for this purpose.

        Take a square piece of cloth having sides about 38 inches and then cut it as diagonal into two parts, you will get two slings.

        The sling can be cut as smaller or larger according to need (hanging).

        The sling can be divided in to following three parts-

  1. Base or the longest side.
  2. Sides or the edges of both the sides.

Among all the three corners of it, the upper corner is called ‘Point’ and other two corners are called ‘Ends’. 

The sling is used as following-

  • In the form of opened bandage- It is tied on the chest or any wide section as only one.
  • In the form of wide bandage- In this method, the corners are tied by bringing the base under them.
  • In the form of narrow bandage- In this method, the wide bandage said above is folded one more time toward that direction.

For making wide and narrow bandage according to need, the sling (triangular) is made in to half by meeting both the corners.

Multi-tailed bandage- It is made with a clean and washed piece of cloth or fallalen according to need. But, the piece of cloth should be as longer as it could be crapped one and half times around the affected part and as much wider as it could cover the whole bone of it.

       Both the sides of the clothes should be cut in such a manner that all the bandages are obtained with equal in width and parallel to each other, but the middle section of them should be bended. Its width can be kept from 2 to 4 inches according to the affected part.

       In the second method of making this type of bandage, the bandage of clothes are kept in parallel line in such a way so that each of the bandage would come over 1/3 part of previous bandage. After placing the bandage over other bandage, its center is stitched on both the sides up to little distance or the center of the bandage is stitched after keeping the same cloth over it.

    The main benefit of tying this type of bandage is that the wound or affected part can be checked or change the bandage without giving any troubles to the sufferer.

Adhesive bandage- This type of bandage is available in the form of Leuco Plast Blasto or Plast. It can be purchased from any chemist’s shop. It is just stuck on normal boils, pimples, etc. it is better to use when cotton or gauge, etc. has to keep on the any wound as immovable or normal bandage can not be possible to tie on that part.

For illustration- if any small eruption has been burst after appearing on cheek and it has been covered with cotton after applying medicines, etc., this type of adhesive bandage will be better to use for making it immovable.    

Ways for tying bandage- The bandage is tied by following three ways-

  1. Hard.
  2. Uniform.
  3. Loose.

Tying hard bandage- This type of bandage (hard) is tied on the affected part which requires additional pressure like muscular parts- hips, thigh root, armpits, armpits, head, etc.

Typing uniform bandage- This type of bandage (uniform) is tied on the parts like- back, throat, stomach, chest, mouth, penis, fingers, etc. so that it is neither too hard nor too loose.

    In brief, the bandage which has been tied as hard (tightly), but which do not generate pain and obstruct blood circulation on the affected part due to its tightness, is called hard bandage. Those which is neither too loose nor too tight is called uniform bandage and those who is tied as little loose, is called loose bandage.          

Tying the knot of bandage- After wrapping the bandages, the knot is tied on the last ends of them. The knot should be tied at little distance of affected or injured part so that the sufferer would not feels any uneasiness or trouble due to it.

There are two types of knots-

  1. Reef knot.
  2. Grainy knot.

Reef knot- this type of knot is considered as the best for keeping the bandage fixed (immovable). For tying this type of knot, first of all hold both the ends of the bandage and then bring the right end upwards passing through the under of left end; circulate it and then the left end bring under it and circulate it again. After that, tie a knot. This type of knot is called reef knot.

        While tying reef knot, be careful that its press would not fall on the affected part and the sufferer would not feel trouble from it. If there is a possibility of any type of trouble to the sufferer, a soft pad of cotton should be placed on the affected part. After tying knot, its edges should be bended under it.

Grainy knot- it is considered as normal knot. This type of knot is often slipped and pricked in the body too, so it is better to avoid it. If it is necessary to tie due to any reason, it should be tied at little distance of affected part.

    Today, safety pin and adhesive tape are used to keep the bandage fix instead of tying knot.

Sling- different type of slings are used to give support or comfort to upper arms and for lessening the stretch falling on the arms by the movements of affected neck, shoulders and chest. A triangular bandage is used for this purpose (sling).

Sling for hanging the arms- when splinters are tied on the affected part in case of fracturing of ribs bones, wounds, injury in the hands or shoulders or fracturing of arms’ bones, etc., this sling is used.  

    For fitting this sling, first of all take a sling and stand before the sufferer and then place one end of it on his/her shoulder in the affected side. Bring the end of this sling crossing through the neck of the sufferer towards the affected side. It should be reached to the elbow of the affected arm and the front end of it should be kept in the middle of the sling. Then, bring up the other end of this sling and place the fore arm on it and tie reef knot on the neck and tie other both the ends on the collar bones.

    Now, bring the sling’s ends towards the elbow and join it with the front part of the sling with the help of safety pins. It does not allow the bandage to move from its place. The bandage should be set in such a manner that its base could reach to the nail of little finger and the nails of other fingers would remain opened. After fitting the sling, it should be also checked out that the wrist would be in a line of elbow or little above it.

    It is very important to remain other fingers out from bandage, because through it, blood circulation in the affected hand can be estimated.

Thin sling of hand- it gives support to the wrist and hand, but the elbow is also remained hanging with the support of it. It is tied in the case of normal injury in the wrist, shoulder or hand.

The process of tying it- Bring one end of wide bandage towards the healthy hand passing above the shoulder in such a manner that it would reach above the should of the affected wrist.

    Place the affected wrist after bending the hand from elbow on the middle of bandage in such a way that the half part of little finger would remain as exposed. After that, tie the hanging ends with the first end.  

Collar-cough sling- this type of sling is used in case of fracturing of collar bones for giving support to the wrist.

Process of tying it- Place the fore arm on the sufferer’s chest after bending the arm from elbow in such a manner that the fingers of his/her hands would touching his/her other shoulder. Then, tie clove-hitch knot in the upper section of affected bone.

    For tying clove-hitch knot, first of all make the ring of a narrow bandage and then make another ring and keep it on the first one. After that, move the second ring behind the first one. In this way, clove-hitch knot is tied.  

Sentjohn knapsack- for keeping the hand as up properly in case of fracturing collar bone, this type of sling provides much relief to the sufferer as well as his/her hand is also remained up.

Process of tying it- keep the hands of affected side on the chest in such a manner that the palm would remain on chest bone as well as fingers would remain towards healthy shoulder.

    Then, unfold the sling hold one end of it in the left hand and other parts of it in the right hand; place it on the hand by turning it in such a manner that the other part of it would remain far from the elbow and the end of it hold by left hand would remain on the right shoulder (in case of injury on the left side).

    Then, bring hanging end of it towards the back by turning it and tie it with the end already present on the healthy shoulder. The front part of it should be turned towards the elbow and should be clipped with pin here.  

    If sling (triangular bandage) is not available on the spot, the palm of affected arm should be placed on the chest by bending it carefully and with the help of shirt’s arm, it should be hanged down by clipping safety pins.

Other types of sling- many other types of sling can be also made according to need like- making the lower part of affected side by clipping safety pins with shirt and trapping the affected hand in his/her coat or boscket. This type of bandage is called pin bandage.

    Like this, other useful things- belt, hanky or tie can be also used as sling.

    In case of sudden accident, you should try to provide relief to the sufferer with the help of whatever things you got on the spot.

Tying different types of bandages- Bandage can be tied on any part of the body according to need. The process of tying bandages is different on different places.

Use of long bandage- following things should be kept in the mind while using long bandage-

  • You should be sure before using this type of bandage that it has been wrapped tightly in a cylindrical way.
  • The outer end of it should be used on the place where you have to tie bandage.
  • The opened part of bandage should be in contact of outer skin.
  • The bandage should be tied from downwards to upwards and from inside to outside, but the long bandage should be tied from downwards to upwards on the chest and on the stomach; it should be tied from upwards to downwards.
  • All the long bandages are tied in circular way. Each of the turns should be done in such a way while tying the bandage so that previous turn would be covered about one third.
  • In few circular bandages, the bandage is wrapped by bending after every turn. While tying such bandages, it should always be kept in the mind that the bandage would bend at the same place and the bended part would always remain towards the outer parts. It should be holded tightly while wrapping it, but it should be made little loose while wrapping. After bending it, it should be made tight again. The bandage should be remained open only up to little distance even while bending it otherwise it will not able to be tied properly.
  • The bandage should be tied equally along with tightening it, but it should not be made as tighter as it would become responsible for stop blood circulation. By moving you hand on the tied bandage, if its edges would turn as reverse, it is sign of tying loose bandage.   
  • If the bandage has to tie on the left side of the body, the cylinder of the bandage should be kept in the left hand and the end of it should be in the right hand. In this way, if the bandage has to tie on the right side of the body, the cylinder of the bandage should be kept in the let hand and its end should be kept in the right one. While tying the bandage, sometimes the cylinder of the bandage has to change from one hand to another too.
  • While bandaging, the turning of the cylinder should always be from inwards to outwards.
  • If the bandage has to tie on any wound, it should be tied only after applying medicine first on the wound.
  • If the long bandage is not cylindrical in shape, it may be difficult to tie as well as it does not able to be tied properly. The cylindrical bandage can be tied straightly by spreading it without bending. The long bandage can be made as cylindrical in shape through hands or machine.

Note- one may expert in wrapping the bandage as cylindrically by practicing for few days.

Ways of tying the long bandage-

  • Simple spiral.
  • Reversed spiral.
  • Figure of 8 type spiral.
  • Spaica spiral.

Simple spiral- this type of bandage is tied on the part of the body whose thickness is equal like- finger, wrist, fore arm or the lower part of leg, etc.

    If you have to tie such bandage on any part of body, first of all you should need to make that part as straight and then the bandage should be started tying on it. After that, tying (wrapping process) should be continued so that the affected part would go on being covered.

Reversed spiral- this type of bandage needs many turns and when the bandage is turned (wrapped) around the affected part, it is bended from its upper portion.

    This type of bandage is tied on such parts, whose width (thickness) is not equal or is even.

    Simple spiral can not be tied on such parts and if it is tied, it does not able to remain as fix on its place. Therefore, only reverse spiral should be tied on such parts.

Figure of 8 type spiral- in this method, the bandage is tied around the affected part once as downwards and then upwards in a slanting (oblique) way. The snare made after tying such bandage is in the shape of digit 8.

    This type of bandage is tied on any joint or the place near it like- elbow and knees.  

    In this method, the bandage must cover the upper and lower section of the joint. There is less chance to be moved the bandage from its place by tying it in such manner. While tying the bandage from downwards to upwards, the distance between wrapped bandages must be as maximum as possible.

Spaica spiral- this type of bandage is also like that of digit 8, but it is tied in the shape of wheat hairs.

    This type of bandage is tied for giving pressure on shoulders, thighs, thumbs and big toes.

Note- dirty or entangled or used, etc. bandages should not be used. 

You should always keep following precautions in you mind while using sling (triangular bandage)-

  1. First of all, fold this whole bandage into thin (narrow) one and then spread as flat on any clean table or even surface; bend it in such a manner so that both its ends would meet to each other at the middle section of it. Like this, bend it again and close safely in a box. This type of bended bandage can be carry very easily from one place to another by putting it your pocket.
  2. you should need to be sure about the cleanliness and freeing from bacteria of such bandages before use. Dirty, dusty or old bandage (sling) should not be used.
  3. after tying the bandage (sling), its ends should always be tied as reef knot as well as it should be also remembered that the knot would not tie just above the wound or injured area otherwise it will give pricking sensation and create trouble and pain to the sufferer.
  4. This type of bandage (sling) can be reused after washing it with soap and water properly and then drying.       

Use of multi-tailed bandages- this type of bandages can be made in different shapes and sizes according to need. For example- it is considered as the best for tying on the stomach.

    For making this type of bandage, take about 12X12 inches thick piece of cloth and then stitch both its sides with 5-5 bandages. Each of these bandages must be 36 to 48 inches in length and 5 inches in width. While stitching these bandages, you should be careful that one stitch would fall on 2/3 part of the cloth. Two bandages should be also stitched in the lower section of it.

    For tying this type of bandage, two people are needed as standing at both the sides of the sufferer. After placing the middle section of the bandage, the first person stretches it towards his/her sides as well as the second one brings the bandage far away from the sufferer’s middle back and pull the sufferer towards his/her side. In this manner, the bandage is wrapped on the sufferer’s stomach each time. In the last, each of the bandages is tie or fix with the help of safety pins at different places. Now, both the ends of bandage is tied on the sufferer’s back after moving it downwards. By tying the bandage in this process, it is not able to move from its locaton.

  1. for tying on the head, the bandage in shape of English alphabet ‘L’ is the best. For making this type of bandage, take two pieces of bandages each in the length of 2 inches and the width according to need and then both their ends is stitched like the English alphabet ‘L’.
  2. for tying on the area between the anus and penis, T-typed bandage is considered as the best. This bandage is stitched at the middle and then long end of it is kept on the sufferer’s back and one of the other two ends is tied with it after moving above the stomach and other one is brought through the under area between the anus and penis and then tied it on the stomach.

Use of adhesive bandage-

  • This type of bandage (adhesive bandage) is made by different companies involved in preparing allopathic (English) medicines and it is sold by different names like- Leuko plast, Blasto plast, Flexo plast, adhesive tape, etc. it is easily available on allopathic chemist’s shop. This type of bandages is available in different shape and sizes. Therefore, you have choices (options) to purchase it according to your need.
  • This type of bandages is neither become loose nor move from its place (dislocate). It provides better support to the tied place.
  • Sometimes, it generates itching sensation too on the skin as well as the sufferer feels pain at the time of removing it.
  • This type of bandages should be used on the part where hairs are not present (hairless part). If it has to use on hairy area, first of all the hairs of that area should be removed out properly.
  • This type of bandage should be used (stuck) only on dry area and iodine solution should not be used while using it.
  • The area, on which this type of bandage has to use, should be made dry after applying mother tincture of Benzoin co. on it with the help of cotton bud and then only it should be stuck. By doing like this, there is no any possibility to appear eruptions on that area.
  • At the time of removing such type of adhesive (sticky) bandage, release its edges carefully and gently so that the sufferer would not feel any type of pain or troubles.
  • It is better to use (apply) medicines named Zoff T.J. Cmith and Nephew or Antichaesin (Aline and Honburys) at the time of removing such bandage. This medicine is applied with the help of cotton buds in the chemicals of this bandage, resulting the dried chemical is melted or become loose and the bandage is removed out easily.

Tying the bandages on different body parts-

Tying long bandage- the long bandages can be tied on different body parts by following ways-

Tying bandage on head- for tying bandage on head, first of all take two bandages each about 5-6 cm in width and 7-8 meter in length. Then, stitch both their opened ends together i.e. join both the bandages together. Now, make the sufferer to sit on a chair or bed as well as stand behind him/her and place the middle section of the bandage (stitched section) on the sufferer’s forehead just above the eyebrows. After that, unfold both the ends of bandages in opposite direction and bring them to the rear of his/her head passing above both the ears and turn it here. After that, bring first end towards the front part of the head and bring the second one towards the right side of head just above the first bandage. Keep this activity continue until the entire head would be covered. In the last, tie both the ends in the rear of the head at middle after bending them on each other.       

Tying bandage of the shoulders- for tying bandage on the shoulders, take a bandage 2 inches in width and 5-6 meter in length and keep it on the arm near shoulder in such a way that the opened end of it would remain inwards to the arm.

    Now, wrap the bandage once around the arm. As a result of it, the bandage will come above the arm after passing between the arm and the body. After that, bring out the bandage as slanting way above the arm from the other side as shown in figure. Then, bring the bandage on the arm of affected shoulder passing above the chest. Here, wrap it once around the arm and bring out through the place between the arm and body. In this way, the bandage will again come on its previous place. Here, wrap the bandage in the manner said above. Remember that every turn (wrap) would go on covering the previous one about 1/3. by wrapping the bandage like this, when the affected should would be covered completely, the bandage should be bended when it would reach to the affected shoulder passing through the chest and it should be fix here with the help of safety pins.     

Tying 8-shaped sling on the hand- For tying this type of sling, take about 2 inches long and 8-10 yards wide bandage.

    After that, keep the injured elbow on the sufferer’s chest by bending and then place the opened end of the bandage on the upper arm near the elbow; bring the bandage to the other side of chest passing through the upper arm and forearm. From here, turn the bandage and bring again towards the affected elbow. After that, bring the bandage towards the other shoulder passing above the forearm near the elbow. In this way, one round (wrap) of the bandage will be completed.

    Now, tie the bandage after passing it above the chest again towards opposite side. It should be remembered that every wrap (round) of the bandage on the arm would cover 1/3 part of previous one and would go on continuing towards the shoulder. Like this, every round (wrap) on the forearm should be continued towards the wrist along with covering 1/3 part of previous wrap.

    When both the elbows would be covered properly and the last wrap would reach near the forearm, it should be fixed here with the help of safety pin.           

Tying bandage on fingers- if the bandage has to tie in only one finger, take about 4.5 feet long bandage and if the bandage has to tie in two or more fingers, take the bandage in required length.

    First of all, turn the palm back (reverse) and spread (separate) the injured fingers, then place the bandage on the back side of the wrist in such a way that its opened end would remain towards the thumb. Now, wrap the bandage on the wrist 2 times in such a manner that little part of its end would remain as hanging. After that, bring the bandage on the injured fingers and thumb passing through the back side of the wrist and turn it once. Then, bring it to the edges of fingers after turning once more.

    After wrapping once at this place, wrap the bandage normally around the whole fingers. It should be wrapped in such a way that every wrap would go on covering 1/3 part of previous wrap. When the entire fingers have wrapped with the bandage, bring the bandage to the wrist passing through the thumb to small finger and above the back side of the palm and then after giving one or two wrap here, tie it with the other hanging end of the bandage.

    Through this process, bandage is tied around one finger. If the bandage has to tie on two or more fingers at once, start tying the bandage on next finger after completing of previous one and wrapping a complete wrap around the wrist. In this way, the bandage can be tied on all the fingers.

Spaica bandage of thumb- the bandage using for tying on the thumb must be 2 cm in width and 4.5 feet is length.

    First of all, wrap the bandage around the wrist 2 times as said above in case of fingers.

    Then, bring the bandage to the nail of the thumb passing through the palm from the little finger and here wrap the bandage once around the thumb. At this time, the bandage will be towards the outer edge of the thumb. Bring it towards the little finger passing above the thumb and the back side of palm and then bring it towards the outer edge of the thumb by turning around the palm.

    From here wrap the bandage on the thumb in such a manner that it would cover 1/3 part of previous wrap. When the bandage would reach on the outer edge of thumb after turning around the thumb, bring it to the little finger again passing above the back side of palm.

    When the bandage would be wrapped around the thumb by this process, wrap the bandage around the wrist 2 times and fix it on the back side of the wrist with the help of safety pins.

    The bandage is tied on the big toes too through this process. Start this type of tying from the ankle and tie a knot or fix with the help of safety pins at this place.

Tying bandage on the palm- for tying on the palm, the bandage should be taken about 1.5 inches in width and 8 feet in length.

    Place the bandage on the palm is such a manner that its open ends would remain towards the little fingers and then wrap is around the four fingers by bringing it towards the thumb from the little finger.

    After wrapping the second time, bring the bandage to the wrist passing between the thumb and palm as well as above the back side of palm and give one wrap around the wrist.

    Bring the bandage to the nail of little finger passing above the thumb and the back side of palm and then bring it towards the thumb passing below the fingers and little finger and wrap it 4-5 times by repeating the first way. It should be kept in the mind that an equal distance must be left in between every wrap. After last round, fix the bandage with the help of safety pin after wrapping it around the wrist 1-2 times.   

Tying bandage on forearm- for this purpose, about 2 inches wide and 18 feet long bandage is required.

    First of all, place the bandage on the wrist in such a way that its opened end would remain towards thumb and then bring it to the wrist passing through little finger and starting from the thumb; wrap it around the wrist 2 times.

    After that, when the bandage would reach to the thumb, bring it to the edge of the little finger passing between the thumb and the back side of the palm.

    Then, bring the bandage to the wrist near the little finger after wrapping around the palm. In this way, one or two wraps should be given again if needed.

    After last wrapping, when the bandage would reach to the edge, it should be wrapped around the palm two times. It should be kept in the mind that every wrap would cover 1/3 part of previous wrap.

    When the bandage would reach in the middle section of the back palm, it should be wrapped on the arm up to the part above elbow.

    Sometimes, when the bandage is reached to the back part of the arm in every wrap, it is tied also by bending.

    When the bandage would reach near the elbow, it should be wrapped normally and fix with the help of safety pins.

    This type of bandage is tied only on the injured part of palm or forearm. If only the forearm has gotten injury or hurt, but not the palm, the bandage should be started from the wrist and tied directly on the forearm.

Tying bandage on leg- If the area from ankle to knee gets any type of injury, the bandage is tied around it like that of forearm. While tying bandage around the leg, it is tied in every wrap by bending as in case of forearm.     

Tying bandage on elbow- For this purpose, first of all a bandage about 2 to 2.5 inches in width and 10 feet in length should be taken.

    Then, bend the injured elbow at right angle (90°); wrap the bandage two times around the arm little above from elbow. The bandage should be wrapped in such a manner so that its wrapping would be from outwards to inwards.

    After completing two rounds, turn the bandage through under arm in such a way that it would reach to the outside of forearm below the elbow. At this place, wrap 2 times again. From here, bring the bandage through the inner surface of elbow joint to the upper arm and after giving wrap once here, bring back the bandage to the forearm. At this time, the bandage will reach inwards of the forearm and make digit 8 on the elbow’s joint.

    Now, wrap the bandage many times so that the whole elbow would be covered. Every wrap must need to cover about 1/3 part of previous wrap. When the last wrap would reach to the upper arm, give a wrap here and fix the bandage with the help of safety pins. At the last, the arm should be hanged down with the help a thing tape from neck.              

Tying bandage on knee and ankle- for this purpose, first of all a bandage about 3 inches wide and 5 meter long should be taken.

    Then, place the open ends of the bandage on the inner surface of joint and wrap 2-2 times here. Now, go on wrapping the bandage above and under the joint in the shape of digit 8.

Tying bandage on heel- for tying bandage on the heel, first of all take 7 cm wide bandage in the length according to need.

    Then, make the injured foot little up from the ground by giving support of anything so that the bandage would be tied easily. After that, start wrapping the bandage from ankle joint and bring it as wrapping towards little toe just above heel and then bring it on ankle joint.

    Now, wrap the second end of the bandage like first ones in such a way that it would cover about 1/3 part of first one. Then, third wrap should be done in such a way that it would remain towards sole below the heel and would cover 1/3 part of previous wrap.

    Now, wrap around leg once by bringing it above the ankle and then bring the bandage towards the lower of sole. Here, turn it from the under section of sole and after reaching to big toe, turn the bandage as slanting on the heel and bring it on the front passing through the rear of leg. After that, bring the bandage towards big toe. At last, wrap it around the leg normally and fix with it with the help of safety pins.

Tying bandage on sole-for tying bandage on sole, first of all take a bandage about 7 cm in width and length according to need.

    Place the bandage on ankle joint in such a manner that the open ends of it would remain towards big toe. Then, wrap the bandage around ankle and heel two times in such a way that it would cover the whole heel. After that, bring it to the toes tips passing above feet and wrap here normally, like that of forearm and legs, wrap the bandage on the foot after turning it at every round. By wrapping 5-6 times in this way, the sole will be covered completely. Now, bring the bandage again to the front and wrap it around the ankle and then fix here with the help of safety pins.

    If it is required to tie bandage also on leg, this bandage can be continued even around the leg.  

Tying bandage on chest- there are two types of bandages required for tying on the chest (bandage is tied on the chest by two ways)-

  1. only for one section (part) of chest.
  2. for whole the chest.

        For tying on chest, the bandage must be 3 inches in width and length as according to need.

        If the chest has to be covered from one side only, first of all place one end of first bandage on wound and then bring the second end of it, wrapping around the waist from left side, to the section below right chest and then continue it to the section above left shoulder. From here, bring it towards the left side of the waist and wrap again around it. In this way, when both the sides of the chest would be covered properly, fix the ends of bandage here with the help of safety pins.

        If you have to cover the whole chest, first of all take a bandage as said above and start wrapping it on the rear of the waist from left side and after wrapping it around the waist, bring it towards the right side of the waist passing above the left shoulder towards front side. Here wrap it around the waist again. In this way, when both the sides of the chest would be covered properly, fix it here with the help of safety pins.

        This type of bandage is also called Lister’s bandage.

Spaica bandage of shoulder- this type of bandage is tied for giving pressure on shoulder. For this purpose, first of all start tying bandage from armpit. After that, bring it, passing through armpit, sides, shoulder, back, inside the other armpit and around the chest, to the armpit again. In this way, wrap the bandage many times and complete tying process. At last, fix it here with the help of safety pins.

Tying bandage on collar bone- For tying bandage on collar bone, first of all place a pad about 2 inches in width and 4 inches in length in the side, then take tape about 4 inches in width and bring it around the upper part of arms and make a bag like structure with the help of safety pins.

    Now, wrap the chest after wrapping it around the sufferer’s back and bringing down from the sides and go on tying the affected part towards side. Then, make the arm up and attach the arm with chest so that the pad would remain fix properly. After that, wrap the bandage above the shoulder and around the elbow 3 times for giving support in raising shoulder and to the arm. Then, wrap the bandage around the trunk and on the lower part of arm so that the shoulder would remain as up. In the last, bring other end of the bandage to the upper section of arm and fix it here with the help of safety pins.  

Tying bandage on jaw- for this purpose, first of all take a piece of 5 feet long and 3 inches wide bandage and make a hole in middle of it. After that, tear from both the sides of it from the middle up to the distance of 1.5 inches from the hole. In this way, a bandage having four ends will be made. Tie it on the jaw properly.  

The Barrel bandage of chin- For this purpose, take about 2 to 2.5 inches wide bandage, then place the middle section of it under the chin backward as far as possible, and then bring it above the head by turning it and tie it here.

    After that, open the knot and bring one end of it in the front of cheek and other end to the rear of head. In the last, tie a knot above the head.

    This type of bandage is also called Barrel bandage.        

Tying bandage on the rear of ear- for this purpose, mastoid bandage is considered as the best.

    This bandage should be tied according to figure.

Tying bandage on thigh- For this purpose, first of all make the sufferer lie down on his/her back and place a pot as reverse under his/her waist.

    Then, wrap the bandage around thigh root 2-3 times and bring it behind the waist, again wrap it around the thigh. In the last, wrap it around the whole waist 2-3 times and fix here with help of safety pins.  

Tying bandage on eye- For this purpose, first of all put cotton on the eye on which the bandage has to tie, after that tie a bandage over it in a normal way.   

Tying bandage on throat- For this purpose, wrap the bandage around throat, then bring it to the opposite sides passing above shoulder, here turn it and bring it to the other side. After that, bring it to opposite shoulder and turn again like previous. In this way, when the bandage would end, fix it with the help of safety pins.  

Tying bandage on the part between anus and penis- For this purpose, make a T-shaped bandage by the method said above. It is joined by stitching in the middle.

    Then, place the middle section (stitched) of the bandage on the middle line of sufferer’s back and turn the upper end of it and tie on his/her stomach.

    Now, bring other lower end of the bandage to the stomach passing above the anus and tie it here.

    For tying bandage on the place between anus and penis, it is considered as the best method.   

Tying bandage on skull- for tying bandage on skull, first of all make the sufferer to sit on a chair or bed, then unfold (spread) a triangular bandage (sling) and fold its whole base about 4 finger in width. Now, stand before him/her and place the bandage on his/her head in such a way that its base would touch both his/her eyebrows as well as its end would hanging behind the head. Remember, the folded base of the bandage must be inwards.

    Now, bring both the ends of the bandage to the back side of the head passing above the ears. Here, cross both the ends and bring them to the center of forehead and tie reef knot.

    Now, pull the hanging end of the bandage gently at the back side of the head so that any type of stretch would be disappeared. In the last, turn this hanging end towards the head and fix it here with the help of safety pins.  

Tying bandage on the chest and back- for this purpose, first of all make the sufferer to stand before you, then place the middle section of opened bandage on the affected area of the chest. After that, put the ends of it on the shoulder in the affected side. Now, fold 2 inches the base of bandage and bring it to the back side after turning. The shoulder on which the end is present, tie the ends on this side in such a way so that one of the ends would remain as hanging. In the last, tie this long end with the hanging end.

    the bandage is tied on the back also like this. There is only one difference found between both that the bandage is put on the back instead of chest.  

Tying bandage on shoulder- for this purpose, first of all spread a triangular bandage and fold its base in the width of about 4 fingers, then stand at the side of affected shoulder, place this bandage on the hand of this side in such a manner so that the middle section of its base would fall on the part little above elbow and the folded base would remain inward. The end of it must be on the shoulder near neck.

    Now, bring out both the ends of bandage through the section below arm. In this way, move it once more above the arm and tie a knot in the front. After that, hang the hand with the help of another narrow stripe with neck in such a manner so that the knot of this stripe would fall on the previous knot. In the last, pull the first bandage gently for disappearing stretches of it. As a result of it, the bandage will be tightened. Now, turn this end above the knot of other bandage and fix with the help of safety pins.

Tying bandage on elbow- For this purpose, first of all spread a triangular bandage and fold its base like earlier, then bend the elbow at right angle (90 degree). Place the base of the bandage, folding as inward, below the elbow outside the arm and its end above the elbow towards shoulder.

    Now, turn both the ends of it above the elbow after turning it on shoulder. Here, tie these ends in the front after turning above the bandage. In this way, shape like digit 8 will be made inside the elbow. After that, after pulling and folding these ends carefully, fix them on the elbow with the help of safety pins. In the last, hang the hand through bandage with neck.   

Tying bandage on hand- for tying bandage on hand, first of all spread a triangular bandage and fold its base like earlier. Then, put the affected palm on this bandage in such a way that fingers would remain towards the ends of bandage and wrist would remain at little distance of folded base.

    Now, bring the upper most part of bandage on the wrist by turning on the fingers and then bring both the ends of bandage on the wrist too by turning and tie a reef knot here after giving one turn.

    In the last, fix it with the help of safety pins after pulling the upper most part of it gently and turning at the knot.

Tying bandage on thigh and hip- for this purpose, there are tow types of bandages required-

  1. triangular bandage (sling).
  2. narrow bandage.

        First of all tie the narrow bandage around waist like a belt in such a way that its knot would fall towards the injured hip.

        Now, fold the base of this bandage according to the injury and place this base, folded side as inwards, on the injured thigh in such a way that its ends would remain on hip.

    After that, tie both the ends of the bandage after wrapping around the thigh and pull little the upper most part of it carefully after bringing out from the under area of tied bandage of the waist and then fix it with the help of safety pins after turning back inwards.

Tying bandage on knee- this type of bandage is tied also like that of elbow bandage. Both have only one difference that in this case, the knee is bended little, but not bended at right angle as done in case of elbow.

    First of all, fold the base of the bandage about 8 cm and then its middle part should be placed on the area just below the knee and its upper most part should be placed on thigh. Then, wrap both the ends of it around the thigh after wrapping around the knee. Now, tie both the ends as reef knot and pull the upper most part downward gently

Tying bandage on foot- this type of bandage is tied also like that of palm bandage. For this purpose, first of all spread the bandage and fold its base. Then, place the bandage on injured foot in such a way that heel would remain at the little distance of base and fingers would remain towards its ends. Now, bring the ends above ankle after bending and then bring both the ends behind foot after wrapping on the foot and then bring them in the front of ankle and tie a knot here. In the last, fold the ends on knot by pulling them gently and fix them here with the help of safety pins. 

Tying multi-tailed bandage- this type of bandage is made by joining more than one bandages, so it is made in different shape and size according to need. This type of bandage is made with domatee, fallalen or other clean piece of clothes.

Tying adhesive bandage- adhesive bandages are used according to need very carefully. Here, the using process of such bandage is shown below, see and follow them.

Tying bandage on finger- take 2.5 inches wide smooth bandage as double in the length of finger, then make hole like structure by sticking as shown in figure and cut the remaining part. 

Tying bandage on other body parts- according to the figures given, adhesive bandage can be used on other body parts.