Dislocation of joint and tearing of muscles


DISLOCATION OF JOINT AND TEARING OF MUSCLES


Introduction-

Muscles are attached with bones and provide movement on contraction. Fat and connecting fiber are present on the muscles which attach the muscle with skin. It is mainly of two types-

1. Voluntary.

2. Involuntary.

There are three types of bones-

  • Long.
  • Small or short.
  • Flat.

Chief functions of the bones-

  • Giving support and shape to the body.
  • Keeping the muscles attached.
  • Connecting different joints.
  • Protecting important and delicate (soft) organs like- brain, lungs, heart, etc.
  • Producing red blood cells of bone marrow.

Bones’ joint- the place in the body where any two or more bones are connected with each other is called joint. There are two types of bones-

  • Immovable joints or Synarthroses- this type of joint is found in head bones.
  • Movable joints or Diarthroses- it is ball and bowl shaped joint. It is found in shoulders.
  • Slightly movable joints or Amphiarthroses- the joints of vertebral column are called Amphiarthroses.
  • Hinge joints- this type of joint is found in elbow and knees.
  • Bone ligament- it works as giving support to and tying joints.

Muscles- muscles are attached with bones and provide movement on contraction. Fat and connecting fiber are present on the muscles which attach the muscle with skin. It is mainly of two types-

1. Voluntary.

2. Involuntary.

A network of blood vessels is found in between muscles and skin.

Skin- sweat glands, fat glands and hairs’ root are found inside the skin. The sweat glands help in maintaining the body temperature.

Trunk and its parts-

1. The trunk consists of mainly chest and stomach. There is a diaphragm between both the chest and stomach to make them separate.

2. There are two main organs found inside the chest- heart and lungs. There is one heart in human body and found in the left side of the chest while lungs are two in numbers each present in both left and right sides of the chest.

3. Stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, kidney and urinary bladder are present inside the stomach.

Functional system of human body (physiology)-

Nervous system- the information of every activities or reaction or physical incidents is reached to the brain through nervous system in the form of nerve impulses and then the brain gives order, according to the information, to that particular body organs to react or response. In other words, the main function of the nervous system is to carry nerve impulses from the body part to the brain and vice-versa. 

Blood circulatory system- as much blood pumped by the heart circulates in the entire body through blood-circulatory system. This system also carries impure blood from different body parts to the heart.

Respiratory system- Fresh and pure air goes in to our lungs through this system where the lungs purify the impure blood carried from different body parts and then forward pure blood to the heart.  

Digestive system- this system helps in digestion the food, distributing it to different body parts and removing out waste products from the body through anus in the form of stools. For completing all these works, the parts of this system which play important role are – mouth, duodenum, stomach, intestine, rectum, liver, gall bladder and anus.

  • The function of both the kidneys is to remove out stool and urine.
  • The glands help in producing hormones and in physical growth.
  • The generation of human beings goes on running through reproductive organs.
  • Sense organs watch outer environment and sends its impulses to the brain. There are total five sense organs found inside the body- eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.

In case of inserting (pricking) of the pieces of lead or iron or thorn, etc. in sole- When any pieces of lead or iron or thorn, etc. are inserted (pricked) in the feet (sole), first of all wash the feet properly with soap and water and then try to pick out (remove) the inserted things with the help of needle. But, before it, it is very important to make the needle nirjarmit. After removing out the inserted things from the feet with a nirjarmit needle, do dressing of the feet. if you are become failure in removing out the inserted things, tie a bandage over it after dressing and then carry the sufferer to a doctor.   

Falling any foreign particles in the eyes- Foreign particles like soil, coal, mosquito, bacteria, straw, dust particles, etc. are often fallen in the eyes. as a result of it, the eyes are become red, irritation is occurred in them and water starts flowing from them. if the time is wasted in this condition, there is a possibility of swelling or becoming out of order of the eyes. in this case, doing following primary treatment is beneficial-

  • If any foreign particles are present under your upper eyelid, overlap the upper eyelid on the lower ones. By doing like this, the foreign particles will come out after trapping in the lower eyelashes. If it fails, turn the upper eyelid in reverse and then the foreign particle should be removed out with the corner of any clean wet piece of cloth or hanky.
  • If anything is entered under the lower eyelid, turn it as reverse and the foreign particles should be removed out with the help of any clean wet piece of cloth or hanky.

Note- the best and easy way to turn the upper eyelid as reverse is to make the mouth of sufferer up and fix it on your chest; then fix a match stick at the root of eyelid horizontally; stretch the eyelid forward and then turn it on the match stick. During this activity, you should ask the sufferer for looking downward. After turning the eyelid, the foreign particle should be removed out with the corner of any clean piece of clothe, blatting paper or cotton.

  • By washing the eyes after filling water in eyes glass, the foreign particles are come out easily.
  • If the foreign particles do not come out by above said manners, drip a drop of olive oil in them. As a result of it, the foreign particles will come out along with tears.
  • With the help of thick ball of cotton, a clean piece of cloth soaked in water, the corner of blatting paper and by washing the eyes by the water of eyes glass, the foreign particles gone inside the eyes like- coal, soil, or other substances, etc. can be removed out easily.
  • Clean the nose as forcefully as tears will come out. The foreign particles fallen in the eyes will come out along with tears.
  • By rubbing the eye in which something has fallen, there is a chance to be scratched of the skin of eyelids, resulting the foreign particles are gone more inwards instead of coming out and pain is aggravated too much. For this purpose, the healthy eye should be rubbed instead of the affected ones. As a result of it, the foreign particle may come out.
  • The foreign particle fallen in the eyes are come out by washing them with the solution of boric acid instead of normal water.
  • If any inflammable thing has gone in the eyes like- acid, alkali, etc., the affected eyes should not be rubbed again and again. as a result of it, the stimulation (inflammation) of acid or alkali is ameliorated. After that, drip a drop of castor oil in the eyes or apply clean Vaseline in them and then a bandage should be tied after placing cotton on them.

In case of entering any worm or insect inside ear-

  • If any worm or insect is entered inside the ear, first of all switch off all the lights of the room and then pour flash light or the bright light of a torch in the ear. The medium light encourages the worm to come out from the ear. If it makes no any impression, make the sufferer lie down on the opposite so that the affected ear comes up. now, drip few drops of glycerin or coconut oil or mustard oil in it. as a result of it, the worm will come out as floating in oil just within few minutes. After that, remove out the worm or insect by holding with the help of tongs. Also by making the sufferer lie down on the side of the ear filled with oil, the worm may come out along with the flow of oil.
  • For removing out worms, etc. entered inside ear, do not put hair pin, match stick or small piece of stick inside the ear, because it may push the worm more deeper inside the ear. In addition to them, hair pin, match stick, etc. may harm the ear drum too.    
  • If the worm present inside the ear does not come out by dripping oil in it, carry the sufferer to a doctor immediately instead of disturbing the affected ear any more.
  • If any hard thing has entered inside the ear, make the sufferer as lie down in such a manner that the affected ear come downwards. Now, pull the upper ear in different directions. As a result of it, the thing will come out. If it is failed, carry the sufferer to a doctor immediately.

Trapping (entangled) anything inside the nose- the children often put small things like- peas, gram, etc. in their nose while playing and it is gone more upwards by breathing strongly. Sometimes, it is come out also by breathing out and sometimes is entangled in that place. if this type of thing is not remove out from their nose, they may feel difficulty in breathing.

        Here, few ways are describing through which you can remove out the entangled thing from the nose easily-

  • Put a very fine wire inside the nose in such a manner that it would reach just behind the entangled thing. Now, try to remove out that thing with jerk.
  • Ask the suffered child to sneeze. For making him/her to sneeze, you make him/her to smell tobacco, chilly or ammonia, etc.
  • When the entangled thing is come out, apply little Vaseline inside the nose of the suffered child.

Note- it is useless as well as harmful to try for removing out the entangled thing by yourself through tongs or pouring water, etc., it may push the entangled thing more upwards.

Entering of foreign thing inside the stomach- sometimes small children while playing or elders unknowingly swallow things like- button, small coins, nut, pin, etc. along with foods. If this type of things does not being entangled in the food pipe, it is reached in the stomach directly. The small children, having the habit to take any thing in their mouth, are mostly become the victim of such incidents.

  • If this type of condition is occurred, there is no need for you to become nervous. Our body has such system that the stomach and intestines, by their selves, try to remove out such things with faecal materials (stool). But, opened or pointed septic pin or bobby pin may be trapped (entangled) in the intestines which may be responsible for holes too in them and may be the indication of any serious condition.

If this type of things does not come out from the stomach, do not give banana or purgative drug to the sufferer and carry him/her to a doctor immediately without wasting it.