Diet in Pregnancy


 DIET IN PREGNANCY


Pregnancy articles:
22. Birth

Introduction:

        The diet of a pregnant must be balanced as well as enriched with vitamins and minerals. Eating food only for filling stomach during pregnancy is harmful for both the mother and baby. She must take easily digestible food stuffs only.   

          Foetal growth depends completely on foods taken by mother. In the first trimester (initial three months), the foetus needs iron in additional quantity so that the unborn baby can not able to suffer from deficiency of blood inside his/her body. Calcium helps in the formation of foetal bones. If a pregnant does not get appropriate quantity of calcium and iron during pregnancy, the unborn baby is suffered from lack of blood and weak bones.     

          Therefore, calcium, protein and vitamins are necessary for women during pregnancy period.

Iron-

  • Iron is found in green and leafy vegetables like- spinach, cabbage, brassicca campestice and other leafy vegetables in enough quantity. For better digestion of iron, vitamin ‘C’ (lemon and Indian goose berry (amla)) is also needed in appropriate quantity.
  • Iron is also found abundantly in mint and coriander. In villages, the people use mint, coriander, jaggery and lemon sauce additionally, because iron is found enough in it. Half spoon of this sauce, if taken twice a day, fulfils the requirement of whole the day. It is taken with chapattis and breads. Fried fish has also calcium and iron in enough quantity and used in pregnancy period. In pulses, it is found abundantly in green lentils, kabuli chana, black gram, a kind of red and white bean, rajma, soyabean, etc.   
  • Iron is also found in currant and if taken about 5 pieces regularly, the requirement of iron is fulfilled in the body.
  • When milk is boiled in iron pot, iron elements are mixed in it that is very useful for our health. Food cooked in iron pot can be also pungent and harmful. In modern age too, few people store flour in iron pot.  
  • A pregnant is suffered from deficiency of blood in her body during pregnancy period due to less quantity of iron elements in her diet that is responsible for different types of complaints like- weakness, short breathing (panting), fast heartbeats, etc. a woman needs about 40 to 60 mg iron elements everyday.  

Calcium-

  • Milk and milk products have enough calcium. Milk should be taken thrice a day in about 200 to 250 g and as well as pregnancy period passed, the quantity of milk should be increased up to 1 kg.
  • All the milk products like cheese, curd, butter, lassi, etc. have enough calcium. Eggs have also abundant quantity of calcium and can be used everyday. Calcium is also found abundantly in green leafy vegetables. Due to deficiency of calcium inside the body during pregnancy period, a woman has complaints like- muscles cramps, nerves pain, bones weakness, backache, nervousness, irritable temperament in few cases, etc. the body needs about 200 mg calcium everyday that can be obtained from mother’s milk.

Protein-

  • Protein is very important for the body structure of the unborn baby during pregnancy period. Protein is found abundantly in different pulses, eggs, kidney-bean, lentils, black lentil, gram flour, gram, soyabean, wheat, milk, milk products like curd and cheese, groundnut, almond, cashew nut, etc.
  • Non-vegetarians get protein abundantly from meat. Such people can use meat three times in a week. The body needs about 60 g protein daily. Protein can be obtained also by changing cooking methods. By eating flour (wheat) after mixing gram flour or by eating chapattis of this mixture, the body gets appropriate quantity of protein. These chapattis can be eaten in breakfast with milk or curd. If a person likes to eat idli-dosa, pulse and soyabean can be put in it for protein.    
  • By eating sprouted kidney-bean, the body gets protein abundantly. This sprouted kidney-bean can be taken with lettuce, food or other vegetables. It can be also taken with lemon, black pepper, salt and green chilly. It is very beneficial for our health.
  • Roasted or boiled potatoes should be also taken. Potatoes have enough carbohydrates. If it is taken as fried, the requirement of fat is also fulfilled in the body. With roasted or boiled potatoes, taking onion, coriander, lemon, etc. is also beneficial.
  • Guava, orange, banana, water melon and carrot are very beneficial for our health. Vitamins are found abundantly in these fruits.
  • Soyabean can be used by different ways. It can be taken as vegetable or as chapattis of soyabean flour after mixing with wheat flour. Few women prepare (cook) different types of dishes with soyabean flour after mixing it with gram flour and take.
  • Parathas are also made from the flour of wheat, gram and millets after mixing together that is taken in breakfast with curd. It is very beneficial for our health.

Folic acid-

          Folic acid, in appropriate quantity, is too necessary for a pregnant. It is very important for physical growth and plays an important role at the time of delivery. The brain, spinal bones and nerves of unborn baby are affected badly due to deficiency of folic acid inside mother’s body. Therefore, it is necessary during pregnancy period in appropriate quantity. It is found abundantly in dark green vegetables, maize, maize flour, rice, orange, etc.    

Vitamin ‘D’-

          Vitamin ‘D’ is needed for the proper digestion of calcium in the body. Calcium comes out from the body in the absence of calcium. Well, vitamin ‘D’ is obtained from food stuffs, but it can be also gotten from morning sunlight. For this purpose, you should sit for about 15 to 20 minutes in the presence sunlight in the morning.  

Other mineral salts-

  • In pregnancy period, other mineral salts like- phosphorus, copper, iodine, manganese, cobalt, zinc, etc. are also necessary for making blood in the body. It also makes the muscles strong.  
  • Phosphorus is found in seas foods, eggs, milk, meat, onion and chapattis.
  • Iodine is found in fish and iodized salt. It is also found in meat and pulses. Salt should sprinkle on food, because iodine presents in it is destroyed during cooking.
  • Manganese is found abundantly in eatables like- green vegetables, pod, wheat, etc.
  • The body also needs water and liquids in appropriate quantity. Water is not only life, but keeps the skin healthy. By taking enough liquids, a person can keep away constipation and the complaints of piles.
  • The use of tea, coffee or cola additionally is harmful for our health, because it contains caffeine. In tea and coffee, tannic acid is also found additionally. Both these substances are harmful for digestion and eliminate out useful materials of the body through stools. By the use of these substances, urine also comes out profusely that generates weakness in the body. The body becomes weak due to deficiency of iron and calcium. Therefore, tea and coffee should be taken in little quantity as far as possible.     
  • Over quantity of sweet as well as salty eatables are also harmful for our body. So, these eatables should be taken in less quantity as far as possible. Too much fragrance of fruits is also harmful for our health, so avoid it. Seasonal fruits are very useful for our health. Mango, sapodilla achras sapota, mosambi, grapes, etc. can be eaten in less quantity, but coco chocolate and different types of ice-cream, coke, pastry having synthetic flour should not be used with them. Women should take green lettuce having carrot, radish, tomatoes, beet root, cabbage, capsicum and sprouted kidney-bean. It fulfils all the requirements of vitamins, calcium and other mineral salts in the body.   
  • By taking raw coconut in pregnancy period, the baby born has fair complexion. Taking raw coconut and cucumber is very beneficial in pregnancy. Therefore, women must take it during pregnancy. Few women eat less in pregnancy period for loosing their weight that is very harmful.
  • During pregnancy period, taking samosa, kachauri, pakoras, etc. is harmful. Therefore, these eatables should not be taken. Ghee and cream should be also avoided in pregnancy. Soup in less quantity is beneficial in pregnancy, but too concentrated (thick) and fatty (oily) soup is harmful for women.
  • Vegetables cooked in additional ghee and spices should be also avoided during pregnancy period. Additional use of spices in foods is harmful. Condensed milk, cashew nut and spices made after grinding poppy and watermelon seeds and cheese are harmful in pregnancy. Foods having stale meat, fish, eggs, etc. should not be taken. It is harms the baby more than mother.   
  • Fruits and vegetables having dust or soil or those on which insecticides have used (sprinkled) should be used after washing them properly.
  • Good food also becomes useless whether it is balanced and nutritive if family environment is unquiet. Worry about body ailments or family quarrel during pregnancy period is harmful for both mother and unborn baby. So, women should remain engaged in praying-worshiping, tailoring and reading good books so that no any bad effects fall on child’s body. 

Important vitamins and diet in pregnancy period-

Vitamin ‘A’-

          Vitamin ‘A’ is found abundantly in cord oil, milk, butter, eggs, meat, orange, carrot and green vegetables. It keeps the body diseases free and helps in the growth of foetal teeth, skin, hairs, hands, legs, nails, thyroid glands, etc. 

Vitamin ‘B’ (biotin)-

          Vitamin ‘B’ is found in appropriate quantity in meat, grains, wheat, gram’s pulses, etc. its main functions are to digest food, growth of foetal body, production of milk in mammary glands and body ability.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)-

          Vitamin B2 is obtained from meat, grains, eggs, wheat, green vegetables and milk. During pregnancy period, it acts in mental growth and increases disease resistance ability of the body.

Vitamin B6 (pentothanilla)-

          Vitamin B6 is found abundantly in meat, wheat, grains, egg, cheese and vegetables having seeds. It keeps RBCs as balanced in blood of a pregnant.

Vitamin B12-

          It is available in appropriate amount in meat, red meat, eggs, milk, cheese and fish. It helps in the formation of RBCs in blood. It keeps the body healthy and develops foetal nerves.

Folic acid (It is a form of B-complex, which is known as vitamin ‘M’)-

          Folic acid is found abundantly in green leafy vegetables, liver and vegetables having seeds. During pregnancy period, it helps in the growth of the body and nerves of the foetus. Due to deficiency of it, different types of diseases related to spinal cord and brain are occurred. 

Vitamin ‘C’ (ascorbic acid)-

          Vitamin ‘C’ is found abundantly in raspberry, sour fruits, Indian goose berry (amla), green vegetables, potatoes, tomatoes, etc. it provides fighting ability against diseases (disease resistance power). It helps in the absorption of iron elements inside the body and to place (fix) a healthy ovule. 

Vitamin ‘D’-

          This vitamin is obtained from fish, liver, cord oil, milk, eggs, etc. it forms healthy particles inside the body.

Vitamin ‘E’-

          Vitamin ‘E’ is found in appropriate quantity in wheat, gram, green vegetables, cord oil, pulses, etc. it enhances functional ability of the body.

Vitamin ‘K’-

  • It is found abundantly in leafy vegetables. It helps in clotting of blood so that bleeding can not able to take place additionally.
  • Foods enriched with sugar in pregnancy period-
  • A pregnant should take foods having sugar 7 times in little quantity.
  • A pregnant should take tea without sugar with two pieces of biscuits at 6 o’clock in the morning.
  • In breakfast, between 7 a.m. to 8 a.m., two toasts with little butter and a cup of tea should be taken. She should take milk without sugar with butter, little vegetables, eggs, sprouted pulses, etc.  
  • At 11 a.m., she should eat a piece of seasonal fruit and orange, guava, cucumber.
  • In between 12 to 1 o’clock at noon, she can take rice, two pieces of chapattis, and a cup of pulse, green vegetables, bitter gourd, onion, carrot, tomato, lettuce, chicken, fish and curd.
  • At 6 o’clock in the evening, a cup of tea or milk having no sugar in it should be taken.
  • At 8 p.m., she should take three pieces of chapattis, a cup of pulse, green vegetables, fish or chicken.
  • A pregnant suffering from diabetes should take milk without sugar in it with two pieces of biscuits at 10 o’clock at night or only fish can be taken.

Diet of a pregnant who not a diabetes patient-

  • In pregnancy period, she should take a cup of tea with 2-4 pieces of biscuits after getting up in the morning.
  • Between 7 a.m. to 8 a.m., she should take toasts with butter and egg or boiled vegetables or cucumber, a cup of sprouted pulse, a glass of milk and a piece of fruit.
  • Lunch should be taken at 11 a.m. including rice or 4 pieces of chapattis, a cup of pulse, vegetables, curd, juicy vegetables or fish.
  • In the evening between 4 p.m. to 5 p.m., a cup of tea with 2 pieces of biscuits and a piece of seasonal fruit (guava, papaya, banana, apple, orange, mosambi) 
  • Dinner should be taken between 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. including 3 cups of rice, 4-5 pieces of chapattis, a cup of pulse, green vegetables, chicken or fish.
  • About 200 to 250 gram milk should be taken before going to bed at night.