Development of the Foetus


DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOETUS


Pregnancy articles:
22. Birth

Introduction:-

        Normally, a foetus grows up to 9 months and then it takes birth. This period of 9 months can be divided into three periods of 3-3 months, which is known as first trimester, second trimester and third trimester.         

First trimester-

       The period of first (initial) three months after conceiving is known as first trimester. In this period, foetus gets its complete shape. Mother can feel the body and body parts and other can also see its body parts with the help of instruments. Foetal length is about 3.5 cm in first trimester. A bag like structure is located around the foetus, which is called amniotic sac. This sac remains filled with 100 cc amniotic fluid. The foetus keeps on moving inside the uterus in the presence of this amniotic fluid, but its movement is not felt by mother. During this period, foetal face develops; eyes are close and both the ears can be seen; the foetal navel is attach with a cord, known as naval blood vessels through which the foetus gets its nourishment and keeps on growing. Amniotic fluid keeps on producing inside the amniotic sac and gathering in it.     

        The foetus drinks this amniotic fluid that is come out from its body in the form of urine. This urine is not harmful inside the uterus and having no any bacteria in it and presents in amniotic sac.

Second trimester-

        The period of second trimester is from 3rd month to 6th month of pregnancy. The length of the foetus is become up to 35 cm and weight up to 1 kg at the last of second trimester. In this period, movement of the foetus, moving of hands and legs, taking big toe to the mouth, growth of fingers, nails, etc. are common. The eyes are close in this period; the hairs of eyelids and eyebrows grow in this period. Foetal skin is smooth and appears as a white layer, known as vernix. Greasy materials come out from inside the body by itself that is converted in a layer. Foetus keeps on moving inside the uterus in amniotic fluid. About 1/3 part of this amniotic fluid is circulated inside the mother’s body through blood and same quantity is produced again.        

        The foetus drinks this amniotic fluid that is come out from its body in the form of urine. This urine is not harmful inside the uterus and having no any bacteria in it and presents in amniotic sac.

Third trimester-

        The period from 6th month to 9 month is known as third trimester. In this period, foetal growth is completed and come closed to mother’s ribs. The movements of the foetus are less that earlier, so it needs additional protein, calcium, iron, fat, etc. which it gets from mother’s body. The bones of the foetus develop with the help of calcium; protein needs for the formation of muscles, iron for blood and fat for body structure. After the completion of 7th month of pregnancy, the growth of foetal brain starts. There are many centers found in the brain of the foetus that retains the functional ability of foetal body.        

        After 7th month, respiratory point is developed in the brain of the foetus, so the baby can live after birth in 7th month, but it is dangerous for about 10 % child. After completion of 8th month of pregnancy, the foetus is grown completely.  

      This period is dangerous for about 5 % child. growing hairs on the head of the foetus, opening the eyes, growing nails completely, etc. take place in this period along with foetal head is moved downwards and attached to the mother’s hip bones. It happens in between 34 to 36 weeks. The mother does not feel any difficulty in breathing by coming down the foetus.