Burn or be scorched



        The incidents of burning goes on often taking place due to fire, electricity, hot metal, acid or by falling thunderbolt (lighting), etc. mainly the outer layer (skin) of the body burn in it, but the heat of fire is too violent resulting the flesh beneath the skin is also burnt. The tongue or throat is also burnt by drinking too hot milk or tea, etc.

        Due to falling hot (boiled) oil, water, milk or tea or by standing near fire, etc., the body skin is not burnt, but becomes red. This condition is called scorched. Sometimes, blisters are also appear due to be scorched resulting the skin is destroyed (dead) and the fibers beneath it also get harm. In such condition, the sufferer feels violent pain.

        The body is being scorched or burnt by thunderbolt. The person, who is affected by thunderbolt, is either become unconscious or died.

        The body gets strong shock (jerk) by touching naked electric wires. The sufferer gets shock and the whole body is fallen insensitive or numb. As a result of it, the skin may be scorched or burnt.   

We should follow following precautions to avoid burning and be scorching-

Catching fire in clothes- the fire is blow up into flames much by get air blow, therefore if worn clothes catch fire, one should neither run nor stand at a place. in case of standing, the fire flames rise up and may burn the mouth, eyes and head. In such condition, he/she should need to roll down on the floor immediately with covering his/her eyes, nose and mouth with both your palms. It helps fire to be extinguished soon.

        Other should need to cover the person’s body, whose clothes catch fire, with blanket, coat, carpet or anything which is thick and heavy, etc. it will not allow outer air to blow up the fire into flames and the fire will be extinguished soon.

        After covering the body with the blanket, etc., make him/her lie down on the floor and then the blanket should be wrapped around the body tightly so that the fire would be extinguished soon.  

Surrounding by fire- when a house catches fire and you have been surrounded in it, first of all you should need to lie down on your stomach attached with wall and then you should crawl on the floor slowly to the door or stairs and come out from the house.

        If the internal parts of the house have caught fire and you are present inside another room, first of all you should need to shut the doors and windows of the room so that fire and smoke could not enter inside the room. after that, you should need to search an easy and less dangerous way to come out. In case of catching fire in any upper floor of the house, you can come out through windows by hanging or jumping. In such condition, you should tie a wet piece of clothe or hanky on you mouth and nose for protecting yourself from poisonous gas or smoke.

        If a person has been surrounded by fire and he/she is unable to protect his/herself, you need to tie a piece of wet clothe or hanky on your mouth and nose before going to protect him/her so that you could remain safe from smoke or poisonous gases. After that, you should reach to the spot as crawling.

        If the sufferer has become unconscious, both his/her wrists should be tied together with a hanky. After that, put your head in between tied hands and trapped your head in them and take out him/her as crawling on the floor.

        If it is safe to come out through stairs, load the unconscious person in any big bucket or tied him/her in any strong sack or bed sheet and then he/she should be hanged down from the window with the help of a strong role. It these things are not available, a rope should be wrapped below the armpit and near the knees 2-2 times as chair knot.

        If a child has to bring down out from a room caught by fire, a bed sheet or any other big substitute of it should be made into bag and a child should be put in this bad after tying his/her hands and legs so that he/she does not come out with jumping. After that, bring him/her down with the help of rope gently.

        If an adult is surrounded by fire and if he/she is alone and conscious, he/she should come down from the window with the help of any rope or strong rope of clothe. It lessens the possibility of getting hurt or injury.    

Extinguishing fire- the things or objects, which may be burnt, should be removed out from the place of fire. After that, you should try to extinguish fire.

        Normal fire can be extinguished by pouring water on it, but never pour water even by mistake on the fire caused by petrol, kerosene oil, spirit, paints, etc. otherwise these liquid substances will start floating on the surface of water due to have less density as well as blow the fire into more flames. this type of fire should be suppressed as far as possible or put sands or soils on it for extinguishing.

        Before extinguishing the fire caused by electricity, first of all the main switch of electricity should be made off. The fire caught by electric wires should be extinguished also by putting sands and soils on it.

        You must have tight clothes on your body and a wet hanky on your mouth and nose as tied while extinguishing fire so that you could remain protected from poisonous gases and smoke.

        In case of fire caught in the fields and its surroundings, it can be extinguished by tying a piece of sack in the branch of tree as beating.

        If fire brigade is available, you should call it immediately even in any type of fire and you should co-operate the staffs of it in extinguishing the fire.

Primary treatment-

        You should do following primary treatment in case of burning or scorching and then provide medical help or the sufferer should be carried to a doctor-

1. If the clothes have stuck on the body by burning, first of all the clothes should be tried to remove out from the body. in fact, it is difficult to remove out clothes from the burnt body, therefore the clothes around the burnt area should be cut. After that, the clothes stuck on the burnt part can be removed out easily after wetting them with coconut or sesamum oil.

2. The injured person gets big shock on his/her heart after burning, so you should need to convince or give hope to him/her and his/her injuries should be also shown as minor before him/her. Milk should be given to him/her for eliminating the shock. If the shock is bigger, little bandy can be also given to him/her.

3. The body of the injured person should be kept warm by covering it with blanket and clothes. For this purpose, the bottles of hot water can be also used if needed.

4. If he/she has been unconscious, you should try to make him/her as conscious and if he/she is feeling difficulty in breathing, artificial breath can be given to him/her.

5. By pouring cold water on it continuously or immersing it in cold water or by placing a piece of any thick and soft clothes soaked in cold water, etc. before appearing blisters on the burnt area, burning sensation is calm down, but this treatment is useful only when blisters had not appeared.

6. If boils or blisters have appeared on the skin due to falling hot (boiled) water, teat or milk, etc., the boils or blisters should not be disturbed as well as they should not be burst too, but a bandage of clean clothe should be tied on it after spreading (sprinkle) boric acid.

7. Applying sesamum oil or olive oil or coconut oil on the burnt parts also provides cold sensation and pain caused by burning is ameliorated.

8. Placing boiled potatoes after crushing them well on the burnt part also provides cold sensation.

9. Prepare concentrated tea and leave it to become cold, then apply on the burnt area after filtering it. it also provides much relief to the sufferer.

10. Immerse a piece of clothe in hot water mixed carbolic lotion or soda in it and then place it on the burnt part. the piece of clothe can be immersed in boric acid or salty water too for this purpose. 

11. Drip two drops of carbolic acid in a tea spoon of Vaseline. If Vaseline is not available, boiled coconut oil should be used for this purpose. Now, apply it on the burnt area, it calms down burning sensation.

12. If the tongue or throat has been burnt by drinking too hot milk or tea, etc., make the sufferer to sit after wrapping his/her body with clothes properly. then, immerse a piece of clothe in hot (boiled) water and squeeze it properly. now, foment the skin of throat from out side. If ice pieces (cubes) are available, it should be given to him/her for sucking or chilled water should be given for drinking.

13. If wounds have appeared on the body due to burning and it is not possible to provide medical help to him/her soon, the affected part should be tied with stripes after applying above said things on the wounds so that the affected part would remain protected from outer dirt, dust and bacteria.

14. After giving primary treatment, he/she should be carried to a doctor immediately.    

Burning from acid- if any part of the body has burnt due to falling acids like- sulphur, salt or shore, etc., the affected part should be washed immediately with ammonia or by the solution of eating soda, but water should never be pour on it. After that, the sufferer should be carried to a doctor.    

Burning from alkali- applying vinegar or lemon juice mixed with water on the burnt area caused by lime, caustic or potash, etc. provides relief to the sufferer.

Reason of appearing wounds due to burning-

  • By dry heat like- fire, hot metal piece, electricity.
  • By corrosive substances like- acid and base (alkali).
  • By rubbing.
  • By sunlight.

Scorching- it is taken place by wet heat-

  • Boiled water.
  • Steam.
  • Hot (boiled) oil or coal tar.

Seriousness of burning-

  • The skin may become red or blisters may fall (appear) on it and swelling may appear. The upper skin is burnt.
  • Burning of next layer of the skin. due to it, the skin is turned like that of scabs and blisters are fallen (appeared) on it.
  • Burning of all the three layers of skin and fibers. This condition is called serious burning.

Percentage of burning- the percentage of total burning area of the body is calculated by following nine rules like- skull 9%, each upper arms 9%, each feet

Sign and symptom-

1. Pain on the burnt area.

2. Redness cum burning.

3. Swelling and restlessness.

4. Appearing blisters.

5. Deep shock.

Primary treatment for burning and scorching-

1. The first step to prevent burning is to make it cold immediately. Pour maximum cold water on the burnt area. It may take 10 minutes or more in providing cold properly.

2. Be careful about the condition of air, respiration and constipation while making the burning as cold and give artificial breath if needed.

3. Remove out shoes and burnt clothes gently from the sufferer’s body before appearing swelling, do not remove out such things which have been stuck with the body otherwise infection may take place.

4. Cover the affected area with bacteria free dry bandage.

5. Do primary treatment for shock.

Carry the sufferer to the nearest hospital immediately.

What should we not do?-

1. Do not touch the burnt area.

2. Do not burst the blisters or boils.

3. Do apply any type of ointment or oily substance.

Primary treatment for little burning and scorching-

1. Make the burnt area cold under flowing water of a tap or immerse the area in cold water. if water is not available, any liquid like- milk or cold substance can be used.

2. Remove out watch or any tight clothes gently.

3. Cover the affected area with bacteria free bandage. A clean polythene is the best for covering it permanently.

Reasons of the particular type of burning-

1. remove out contaminated clothes immediately.

2. in case of burning with acid-

  • wash the affected area immediately with normal water.
  • If eating soda is available, prepare its solution (two tea spoon in little water) and wash the affected area with it.
  • Wash again with water.
  • Cover with bacteria free clothes and stripe.
  • Carry the sufferer to the nearest hospital immediately.

In case of burning with alkali-

1. wash the affected area with water.

2. wash it with the dilute solution of vinegar and water.

3. wash it again with water..