Basic elements of human body structure
Cells- Cells are the smallest unit of human body. These are of different shapes and size. According shape and size, their radius varys from 0.0000075 mm to 0.1 mm. these cells can not be seen with naked eyes, but they can be seen easily with the help of microscope. It is flat like thread or brick in shape. These tiny cells help in all the fundamental operations (basic processes) like- circulation, production of energy, hereditary process, production of protein, etc. these are tiny, complicated, live. There are 3 important parts of cells-
Cell membrane or cell wall- The outer cover of cells is like a membrane and about 3/10,000,000 inches thick. This membrane is called ‘Plasma membrane’. Fluid like gelly presents inside this membrane, called ‘Cytoplasm’. This membrane protects fluid inside the cells as well as it acts like a shield that allow only few types of fluid to enter inside, so this membrane always act like a guard. It also acts like a medium for sending and receing of information. It is made up of protein, lipid and salt. Few protein presents on this membrane is a compiled of few types of atom means few types of atoms is linked from protein atom. Example- few hormones secreted from indocrine glands getimprisonment from compiled atom presents on this membrane. Then, these cells change in their function. This membrane has the ability to identify other cells. Protein present on this layer is helpful in quality indentification. Above fact is used in organ transplant through tissue culture. Cytoplasm- it is found in between nucleus and cell membrane. Many small organelles are present in it. These can not be seen with naked eyes. These can be seen with the help of electronic microscope. Each organelle has its own work. Few proteins work as sending and receiving atom that makes the layer smooth. Few enzymes produce digestive element and protein that is helpful for making few organelles cells as live.
Organelle named mitochondria works as generating energy. After a complicated chemical reaction taken place inside it, a type of substance is generated that collects generated energy and known as adenosine tri-phosphate that is the source of animal energy, therefore mitochondria is called the power house of cells. Enzymes present on its layer generate glucose, nutritive elements and energy by reaction of oxygen.
By observing through microscope, the structure of nucleus seems simplest. It is located in the center of cells like a tiny ball and surrounded by a central cover (membrane). Inside this membrane, a particular type of fluid named ‘Nucleo-plasms’ is found. Nucleus does complicated and serious works. It controls (stops) the origins of each organelle and cell again present in cytoplasm.
Two special factor of nucleo-plasm- nucleoles and chromatin are very important for following works-
- It produces ribosome for the production of protein that produces protein in cytoplasm outside to membrane.
- Cromatin is thread like structure that is produced by protein and hereditary fluid called D.N.A. (deoxiribo nucleic acid). D.N.A. is responsible for sex determination, formation of body system even for the color of skin and hair. It has important hereditary information.
Cell-division- Reformation of human cells and increment of their structure is being done by a special process, called mitosis. In this process, a cell is divided into two parts and is being transferred like hereditary properties. This transformation is related to the formation of protein. In the formation of protein, D.N.A. and R.N.A. play very important role. This process of division goes on taking place for whole life.
The formation of multicellular human body is done just in the womb of mother where an unicellular sperm goes on diving after being fertilized with ovum (egg) and this process goes on continuing until human body is developed completely. In fertilized ovum store uncountable hereditary information is transferred just same in all the cells. D.N.A. present inside cell has fewer amounts of glucose, alkaline and phosphate. Each D.N.A. is helical spring or flexible coiled in structure having 2-3 chromosomes of pair alkaline particles. There is a serial number of the pair alkaline particles that is responsible for hereditary properties, called gene.
Unique arrangement of the chromosomes of pair alkaline in gene- Each gene indicates the structure of a particular protein. There are total 46 chromosomes in each cells of human body. Nucleic D.N.A. is complee and represents impulses of hereditary information, called genome. There are three lacks of pair alkaline are arranged differently in 23 pairs of chromosomes that is obtained from parents.
It is very remarkable thing that any two persons are not similar due of huge hereditary information in each cell of human body. It is called genetic code. Just this code controls protein, produces enzymes. The enzymes are helpful in proper chemical process of cells. This chemical process (mechanism) determines their structure, function and hereditary. There is only one row in the atom of R.N.A. it gives a new form to new cell on the basis of information of R.N.A. and D.N.A. process of cell-division started in pregnancy period goes on taking place for the while. In one hand, old cells go on destroying and in another hand; they are replaced by new ones through cell-division. All these new cells are Xerox copy of their mother cells.
Exception - The cells of brain are called neuron. Old neurons go on dieing; they are not replaced by new ones.
In the different parts of the body, different types of cells go on working their work from birth to death. Oxygen, water, nutritive elements and appropriate temperature are necessary for the nourishment of living cells which is fulfilled by other cells. For examples- the cells of digestive system absorbs foods; the cells of lungs receive oxygen. In this way, they go on doing their work by following the principle of co-operation.
Tissue - A group of similar cells are called tissue. Just these tissues form different organs and body. They are mainly three types-
Epithelial tissue- It covers outer and inner layers. There is little amount of non-living substance or absent in between the cells of the tissue. They are found in various shape like- in the shapes of bed-sheet, membrane, very soft, like the bunch of grapes, flat, etc. These tissues give protection from bacteria, burning sensation, hurt, etc. the skin is the widest layer of tissue. It has two parts-
Body disease comes out through inner skin. The tissues of breathing chamber are like very soft layered. The layers of the tissue of food pipe are very thick; they have to secrete yeast, mucus, work of the filtration of kidneys’ tissues. This is the reason why they are like that of membrane.
Connective tissue- As by name, such type of tissues keep all other tissues and internal organs connecting with each other as well as give shape to them. They are found in the entire body and have in numbers comparison to other tissues as well as are arranged too. They are found in the skin, outer membrane, muscles, veins and in all the internal organs. Few of them are also thin like paper, strong, hard and like a rope, solid bone and in the form of liquid blood. Not only they act like to connect but also provide base to other tissues of our body. They store fat and nourish basic tissues too. The connective tissue named tendon is helpful in providing motion to other tissues who do special function. Cells and veins are helpful in providing motion to connective tissues.
Nervous tissue- The nervous tissues are responsible for following two functions-
- Transmission of impulses soon from the different body organs.
- Controlling body functions.
There are two types of cells in nervous tissues- one is called neuron that is movable unit or working in system and other is unit of cell is called neuralgia. It supports the neuron and connecting. There are three parts of neuron-
- Central structure.
- Exon which is found in 1 and transmit the impulse outside to the structure.
- Denditus- which is found more than 1 and carry nervous impulse to the structure of cells.
Muscle tissue- About half portion of human body is muscular. They are soft. There are three types of muscular tissue-
- Skeletal muscles.
- Heart (cardiac) muscles.
- Intestinal muscles.
Skeletal muscles- The skeletal muscles of hands, feet and trunk are called voluntary muscles. Their cells are arranged as coiled like thread and remain connected with bones. When they contract, body organs become voluntary and controlled.
Heart (cardiac) muscles- These muscles are called involuntary muscles. The wall of heart is made up of just these muscles. The regular and automatic contraction of these muscles is responsible for heart beats. These muscular tissues are made up of long fine thread cells and each of thread has only one nucleus. They get energy for contraction from glycogen stored in muscles which is converted in sugar.
Smooth muscles- They are called smooth muscles because they have no lines in them like other muscles. They are found in intestine, blood vessels, uterus, etc. it is involuntary or automatic. They have motion of contraction. They are working peacefully. They go on forwarding food particles in food pile by their selves and also control the radium of blood vessels.
The cells of muscular tissues are responsible for the controlling of body organs. Contraction takes place much in them comparably. The contraction of injured muscles is become slower and takes time in being recovered the health. Inactiveness for long time makes the muscles inactive too, which can be made active again through exercise.
When many organs of the body complete any work collectively, this group of organs is called system.
- Female Reproductive Organs
- Male Reproductive Organs or Genitalia
Se nse organs-
- Structure of Foot and Palm.
Basic elements of Human body structure, manav shareer ke adhaarbhut ghatak, manav sharer