Human body


HUMAN BODY


        different types of cells are found in human body, among which few are unicellular and few are multi-cellular. Naturally, different types of cells are found in human body, among which few are unicellular and few are multi-cellular. Human body is like such a machine that is not matched with any other creature due to its own unique structure.  Its functional system is also found different from other animals and it is different from the stability of any other machine. It is challenge for man made machine, because as this machine (artificial machine) has its own advantages as well as its structure and beauty are unique. In the other words, as long human body can serve as any other man made machine can not. for illustration- human heart works like a pump and it is 15 cm in length and 10 cm in width however it circulates blood in vessels up to 90, 000 km distance that is equal to filling 1800 liter of tank. The human heart goes on working day and night up to 70-80 years. Humans had not made such type of any pump till now that works as longer as it can. There are many cells and organs found in human body which do their own work like any machine. As like a machine do work with the help of its various parts as human body also do work through its various organs.     

Many parts are found in human body, which are as follow-

Skeleton-

        The skeleton consists different bones of arms, legs, chest ribs, coccyx, back bones, skull, etc. only the skeleton gives a definite structure to human body and supports other organs. It also helps to the body in many movements with muscles

Different parts are found in skeleton-

  1. Panibandhasthi.
  2. Karbhasthi.
  3. Fingers bones.
  4. Asanasthi.
  5. Prapadik.
  6. Gulphalthiyan.
  7. Antjerghika.
  8. Bahijerghika.
  9. Januka.
  10. Uroosthi.
  11. Jaghanasthi.
  12. Shroniphalak.
  13. Urosthi.
  14. Pragandasthi.
  15. Outer cavities.
  16. Inner cavities.
  17. Skull.
  18. spinal cords.
  19. Atria, 4 ribs.

Figure of the front part of skeleton-

        The bones found in human body are also a type of tissue and are known as bones tissues (asthi tissues). The soft substances found inside the bones are called bone’s marrow.  The red bone’s marrow acts in making blood cells. Living and non-living materials are found in bones and salt is found in non-living materials. Living materials found in the bones make them flexible and mineral make them solid. With increasing age, changes also come in the structure of body bones. For example- the bones of an old are dried up progressively and 2/3 salt and 1/3 living materials are found in their bones while in the bones of small children, extra living materials are found. This is the reason why the bones of children are more flexible and soft comparison to an adult. The bones have also their own shape and sizes like- thigh bones are longest while small bones are found in toes. Flat bones found in the skull, chest and ribs. In addition to them, few types of mixed bones are also found that are found in lowest section of the skull and karotimool. These bones have different works in the body.

        The bones of human body also join by various types of other bones like- shoulders, elbows, knees, etc. a particular type of bone joint is found in bones having white flexible materials in them, which is known as cartilage. It remains connected with the surface of bent bone and acts like a lubricant between any two bones. Two membranes are also found attached to it- outer fiber’s membrane and internal mucus membrane. They secrete a type of sticky matter that acts like greasy (oily) action on bones’ joints.  

        The end of a soft round bone is trapped in a cup like cavity and forms shoulders, round hips and cotar joints. In the skeleton, a type of chul joints are also found especially in elbow and knee that helps in moving and bending of the elbows and knees. These are the limit motions of the joints of arms, feet, ribs and vertebral column and they can be turned or slipped.        

Figure of bones’ joints-

Vertebral column-

        The back bone found on the back of human body is also known as vertebral column. It remains holding the total weight of entire body and it has ability to bend and spread (expansion) till many years. There are 24 sections found in the vertebral column. These sections are known as spines. These spines are attached with each other and form a fig like structure. There is a triangular bone found in lowest section of it, which is known as coccyx. 4-5 spines are found as connected with this coccyx. This type of coccyx indicates about the tail of our ancestors. A cylindrical structure is found in the front of every spine, which is known as spine pind. There is a chap found in the rear of this spine pind. These keep many nerves as protected and remain attached with spine and joint on upper and lower part respectively. The plate of spine pind is flat and like a biscuits that acts like a soft mattress resulting the spines of vertebral column do not able to rubbed with each other at the time of jerk and hurt. Due to these plates only, the vertebral column is able to bend and turn.        

Figure of the vertebral column-

Bones marrow-

        Bones marrow is like a soft rope that lies as spread in small nerves passing through the internal passage of its tubes. The spine is reached in many sections through it and it is only responsible for various types of works done in the body.

        There are 12 pairs of ribs found in human body among which 7 pairs pass through their own cartilages and bended at urosthi. These ribs are functional and known as parshukas. There are two more pairs of small joints also found. Beside them, 5 pairs do not bend with urosthi and known as ayatharth parshukas.

        Kanthasthiyan and skundh falcon in the vertebral column which is flat triangular in shape forms makhala. All the bones found in the skeleton remain connected with muscles that are helpful in reflexive and premeditated movements. Total 400 skeleton muscles are found in the skeleton.

There are two types of muscles found in the vertebral column-

  1. Voluntary muscles- voluntary muscles are those that can be kept under control according to wish like- head, neck, hands, legs, etc.
  2. Involuntary muscles- involuntary muscles are those that can not be controlled according to wish like- eyes, heart and intestine.

        The skin keeps the entire body as covered for protecting internal body organs. The layer found on the outer surface of the body is known as skin or the external membrane of the body. The element found beneath this skin is known as internal skin. Sweat glands are found in this part and responsible for controlling body temperature.